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Bibliographic details: Xu CQ, Ma LJ.  Effectiveness and safety of laser photocoagulation plus intravitreal triamcinolone for diabetic macular edema: a meta-analysis. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2012; 12(7): 817-821 Available from: http://www.cjebm.org.cn/oa/DArticle.aspx?type=view&id=2012070014

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Bibliographic details: John G, Ollo D, Meyer P, Herold M, Samer CF, Calmy A.  Clinical course and management of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome after co-administration of injected-triamcinolone and ritonavir: a systematic review. Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals 2013; 5(7): 180-184 Available from: http://omicsonline.org/clinical-course-and-management-of-iatrogenic-cushing-syndrome-jaa.1000086.php?aid=22049

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

‐ there is no precise information about side effects and complications. Only a minority of the patients treated with the steroid oral prednisolone reported minor side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Macular edema, swelling of the center of the retina (the part of the eye responsible for our sharpest vision), is an important cause of poor vision in patients with diabetes. New forms of therapy are desirable because the current treatment including laser photocoagulation does not control all cases of diabetic macular edema (DME) and because laser therapy may destroy normal retinal tissue. Intraocular steroids in the form of intravitreal triamcinolone acetate injection (IVTA) and surgical implantation of fluocinolone acetonide (FAI) or dexamethasone drug delivery system (DDS) are promising new therapies. This systematic review included seven randomized clinical trials involving 632 eyes from five countries evaluating the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal steroids for treating DME. Two trials were at low risk of bias, one was at median risk of bias, two were at high risk of bias, and the remaining two had an unclear risk of bias. In this systematic review, the preponderance of data suggest a beneficial effect from IVTA. The average improvement in visual acuity was 7.5 letters more (‐0.15 LogMAR; 95% CI ‐0.21 to ‐0.09) in the IVTA treated eyes than in those treated with other therapies at three months (based on three trials), 11.5 letters more (‐0.23 LogMAR; 95% CI ‐0.33 to ‐0.13) at six months (two trials), 14.5 letters more (‐0.29 LogMAR; 95% CI ‐0.47 to ‐0.11) at nine months (one trial), and 5.7 letters more (‐0.11 LogMAR; 95% CI ‐0.20 to ‐0.03) at 24 months (one trial). Improved clinical outcomes were also reported in FAI and dexamethasone DDS trials. Elevation of intraocular pressure and cataract progression occur in both IVTA and implants treated eyes but appear manageable.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Phimosis is a condition where the foreskin cannot be fully drawn back (retracted) over the penis. Phimosis is normal at birth and often self‐corrects without needing treatment during the first three to four years of life; only 10% of three year old boys have phimosis. This is known as congenital phimosis. Phimosis can also be caused by scarring of the skin protecting the head of the penis that is caused when the foreskin cannot be retracted. Phimosis caused by scarring is estimated to occur among 0.6% to 1.5% of boys less than 18 years of age, but this type of phimosis seldom occurs among boys under five years of age. Making a distinction between types of phimosis can sometimes be difficult.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

We aimed to examine the benefits and harms of inserting steroids into the eye for treating macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO‐ME).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Neovascular age‐related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with rapid loss of vision due to abnormal growth of blood vessels in the macula. Corticosteroids that reduce this growth of blood vessels have been tested for treatment of such vision loss. This review included three trials evaluating two different types of steroids, triamcinolone acetonide and anecortave acetate, for the treatment of neovascular AMD. The findings across the three trials, which included a total of 809 participants, were consistent with no evidence of benefit, in terms of preventing vision loss, with antiangiogenic steroids compared with placebo or photodynamic therapy. Based on available evidence, there is little benefit of steroids with anti‐angiogenic properties in the treatment of neovascular age‐related macular degeneration.".

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research on whether using images (e.g. ultrasound) to guide injections into specific sites in the shoulder improves outcomes (e.g., pain, function) compared to no images in patients with shoulder pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Review question: We assessed the role of macular grid laser (laser performed in a grid pattern) compared to other new treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of intravitreal (IV) triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) versus subtenon (ST) triamcinolone acetonide (STTA) injection for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Gout results from the deposition of crystals of uric acid in and around joints. The main treatments for gout are drugs that lower uric acid blood levels and resolve the crystal deposits. Acute gout flares result in significant pain and disability and treatment aims at reducing the pain and resolving the arthritis quickly.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out which is the best type of anti‐VEGF drug for diabetic macular oedema (DMO). Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found 24 studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 22, 2017

BACKGROUND: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs and corticosteroids are being widely used to treat diabetic macular edema (DME). The purpose of this study was to evaluate further the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) alone in comparison with intravitreal bevacizumab combined with triamcinolone acetonide (IVB/IVT) in the treatment of DME.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

AIM: To compare the efficacy of the sole intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT) versus intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) alone or IVB combined with IVT in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) and intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory joint diseases of juvenile inflammatory arthritis (JIA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA): and also mild to moderate joint injury, all require a multidisciplinary approach to management. Intra-articular injections of corticosteroids have been shown to be a very beneficial adjunctive treatment in the management of the above disorders. It is, therefore, important that clinicians have a good understanding of the clinical actions of intra-articular injections.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

This review found a similar improvement in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness among patients with central retinal vein occlusion (eye blood vessel blockage) after intravitreal injections with bevacizumab or triamcinolone acetonide. The reliability of the authors' conclusions is limited by the lack of reporting of included study quality, small sample sizes, and inclusion of mainly non-randomised studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

This review concluded that intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection was effective in improving visual acuity patients with refractory diabetic macular oedema in the short-term. This was generally a well-conducted review and the authors' conclusions appear to reflect the evidence. However, limitations within the included trials should be taken into account when interpreting the conclusion.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

BACKGROUND: To quantify the effect of a combination treatment of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection, panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), and macular photocoagulation (MPC) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and diabetic macular edema (DME).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Deleterious effect of oral corticosteroids on bone has been well documented, whereas this remains debated for inhaled ones (ICS). Our objectives were to analyze the effects of ICS on bone mineral density, fracture risk and bone markers. We performed an exhaustive systematic research of all controlled trials potentially containing pertinent data, peer-reviewed by a dedicated WHO expert group, and comprehensive meta-analyses of the data. Inclusion criteria were ICS, and BMD/markers/fractures in asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and healthy patients. Analyses were performed in a conservative fashion using professional dedicated softwares and stratified by outcome, study design and ICS type. Results were expressed as standardized mean difference/effect size (ES), relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on study design and outcome units. Publication bias was investigated. Twenty-three trials were reviewed; 11 papers fit the inclusion criteria and were assessed for the main analysis. Quality scores for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were 80%, 71% for the prospective cohort studies, and 78% for the retrospective cohort and cross-sectional studies. We globally assessed ICS effects on BMD and found deleterious effects: ES=0.61 ( p=0.001) for healthy subjects, and ES=0.27 ( p<0.001) for asthma/COPD patients. For these patients, this effect was 0.21 ( p<0.01) at the lumbar spine, and 0.26 ( p<0.001) at the hip or femoral neck. A single study evaluated the impact of ICS on hip fracture and reported an increased OR of 1.6 (1.24; 2.03). Lumbar fracture rate differences did not reach the level of statistical significance: 1.87 (0.5; 6.94). Osteocalcin and PICP were decreased and ICTP, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline levels were not significantly affected. Budesonide (BUD) appeared to be the ICS inducing the less deleterious effects on bone, followed by beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and triamcinolone (TRI). Publication bias investigation provided non-significant results. In our meta-analyses, BUD at a mean daily dose (SD) of 686 microg (158 microg), BDP at 703 microg (123 microg) and TRI at 1,000 microg (282 microg) were found to affect bone mineral density and markers in patients suffering from the two major respiratory diseases. These findings could have practical implication in the long-term management of asthmatic and COPD patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

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