Home > Search Results

Results: 21 to 40 of 40

Atovaquone‐proguanil appears to be more effective than individual drugs for treating uncomplicated malaria, but there are few data comparing atovaquone‐proguanil to other combination therapies

Many conventional treatments for uncomplicated malaria are failing because malaria parasites develop resistance to them. This can be reduced by treating people with combination drugs such as atovaquone‐proguanil. The review found 10 trials, most of low methodological quality and most funded by a single pharmaceutical company. In addition, trials were small and had few participants thus evidence suggesting atovaquone‐proguanil as more effective than a number of single drug treatments at eliminating the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite from the blood was limited. There were few good quality data comparing atovaquone‐proguanil with other new combination therapies. There were not enough data to assess adverse events, but all trials recorded some adverse events.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease

A cramp is a sudden, involuntary painful contraction of a muscle. Many people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), experience cramps during the course of the disease. These range from mild cramps that do not affect daily activities and sleep, through to very severe, painful cramps. Some medications that are used to treat cramps in people with no medical condition or with conditions other than ALS have been tested in ALS clinical trials. These medicines include vitamin E, creatine, quinidine, and gabapentin. Other medications such as quinine sulfate, magnesium, lioresal, dantrolene, clonazepam, diphenylhydantoin, and gabapentin have been used to treat cramps in people with ALS but their effectiveness is unknown. In 2006 and 2010 the US Food and Drugs Administration issued warnings concerning the use of quinine sulfate, which was the previously most widely prescribed medication for cramps in the US. This review sought to find out how effective medications and physical treatments for cramps are for people with ALS. The reviewers identified 20 randomised controlled trials in people with ALS comprising a total of 4789 participants. Only one trial, of the drug tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), directly investigated the effectiveness of an intervention for cramps. Thirteen randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps secondarily among other variables. The medications comprised vitamin E, baclofen, riluzole, L‐threonine, xaliproden, indinavir, and memantine. Six randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps as adverse events. The medications comprised creatine, gabapentin, dextromethorphan, quinidine and lithium. None of the 20 studies could demonstrate any benefit, but the studies were small. Current evidence on the treatment of cramps in ALS is lacking and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Artemisinin drugs for treating uncomplicated malaria are better used in combination therapy

Artemisinin drugs come originally from a plant that has been used since ancient times in China as a traditional medicine for fever and malaria. These drugs act quickly and few side effects have been reported. Malaria parasites have so far not developed resistance to artemisinin drugs. The review shows that artemisinin drugs clear malaria parasites from the blood more effectively than standard treatment drugs. In areas where malaria parasites are more resistant to existing drugs, such as South‐East Asia, artemisinin drugs are not better at sustained parasite clearance than standard treatment with quinine or mefloquine. Combination treatment using an artemisinin drug together with the longer‐acting antimalarial drug mefloquine improves sustained clearance of parasites, but mefloquine is associated with adverse effects. There are few studies on combination treatment with longer‐acting antimalarial drugs that are safer than mefloquine. There is no evidence from trials that any of the several artemisinin derivatives is better than the others.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Rectal artesunate for treating people with suspected severe malaria before transfer to hospital

Cochrane Collaboration researchers conducted a review of the effects of pre‐referral rectal artesunate for people with suspected severe malaria, living in rural areas without healthcare services. After searching for all relevant trials up to May 2014 they included only one randomized controlled trial. This trial was conducted at various sites across Ghana, Tanzania and Bangladesh, and enrolled 17,826 children and adults.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Interventions for leg cramps during pregnancy

Leg cramps are experienced as sudden, intense involuntary contractions of the leg muscles. They are a common problem in pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. They are painful and can interfere with daily activities, disrupt sleep, and reduce quality of life. Various interventions have been used during pregnancy to treat leg cramps, including drug, electrolyte (magnesium, calcium, sodium) and vitamin therapies, and non‐drug therapies such as muscle stretching. The goal of this review was to find out what is effective and safe for treating leg cramps during pregnancy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Drug Class Review: Skeletal Muscle Relaxants: Final Report [Internet]

Skeletal muscle relaxants are a heterogeneous group of medications commonly used to treat two different types of underlying conditions: spasticity from upper motor neuron syndromes and muscular pain or spasms from peripheral musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this report is to determine whether there is evidence that one or more skeletal muscle relaxant is superior to others in terms of efficacy or safety.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2005
Show search results within this document

Pregnancy, Childbirth, Postpartum and Newborn Care: A Guide for Essential Practice. 3rd edition

Pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and newborn care: a guide for essential practice (3rd edition) (PCPNC), has been updated to include recommendations from recently approved WHO guidelines relevant to maternal and perinatal health. These include pre-eclampsia & eclampsia; postpartum haemorrhage; postnatal care for the mother and baby; newborn resuscitation; prevention of mother-to- child transmission of HIV; HIV and infant feeding; malaria in pregnancy, interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes, tobacco use and second-hand exposure in pregnancy, post-partum depression, post-partum family planning and post abortion care.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2015
Show search results within this document

Motor Neurone Disease: Assessment and Management

Motor neurone disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative condition that affects the brain and spinal cord. MND is characterised by the degeneration of primarily motor neurones, leading to muscle weakness.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: February 2016
Show search results within this document

Finding Evidence for Comparing Medical Interventions

A librarian or other expert searcher should be involved in the development of the search

Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 5, 2011

mhGAP Intervention Guide for Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders in Non-Specialized Health Settings: Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP): Version 2.0

Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders are highly prevalent, accounting for a substantial burden of disease and disability globally. In order to bridge the gap between available resources and the significant need for services, the World Health Organization launched the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). The objective of mhGAP is to scale-up care and services using evidence-based interventions for prevention and management of priority MNS conditions. The mhGAP Intervention Guide version 1.0 for MNS disorders for non-specialist health settings was developed in 2010 as a simple technical tool to allow for integrated management of priority MNS conditions using protocols for clinical decision-making.

World Health Organization.

Version: 2016
Show search results within this document

Drug Misuse: Opioid Detoxification

The guideline on Drug misuse: opioid detoxification, commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, sets out clear, evidence-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to work with people who misuse opioids to significantly improve their treatment and care, and to deliver detoxification safely and effectively. Of the estimated 4 million people in the UK who use illicit drugs each year, approximately 50,000 misuse opioids (such as heroin, opium, morphine, codeine and methadone). Opioid misuse presents a considerable health risk and can lead to significant social problems. This NICE guideline is an important tool in helping people to overcome their drug problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2008
Show search results within this document

Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of kidney cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for kidney cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 12, 2017

Rotigotine (Neupro) (Transdermal Patch) [Internet]

The objective of this report was to perform a systematic review of the beneficial and harmful effects of rotigotine for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: November 2016
Show search results within this document

Rectal artemisinins for malaria: a review of efficacy and safety from individual patient data in clinical studies

BACKGROUND: Rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives has potential for early treatment for severe malaria in remote settings where injectable antimalarial therapy may not be feasible. Preparations available include artesunate, artemisinin, artemether and dihydroartemisinin. However each may have different pharmacokinetic properties and more information is needed to determine optimal dose and comparative efficacy with each another and with conventional parenteral treatments for severe malaria.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Mefloquine safety and tolerability in pregnancy: a systematic literature review

BACKGROUND: Control of malaria in pregnant women is still a major challenge as it constitutes an important cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. Mefloquine (MQ) has been used for malaria chemoprophylaxis in non-immune travellers for several decades and it constitutes a potential candidate for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Efficacy and safety of chloroquine for treatment in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax infections in endemic countries

Chloroquine (CQ) is a relatively inexpensive drug for treatment of malaria. If efficacy of CQ is still assumed, then it should be indicated in malaria treatment policies as the drug of choice for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries with resource constraints. The objective of this review is to summarize the existing evidence on the relative efficacy and safety of CQ in treating patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in endemic countries. We searched online data bases (PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library) and the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Fifteen randomized controlled trials (n=6215) assessing the relative efficacy and safety of CQ for treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria were included. CQ monotherapy was compared to CQ plus primaquine (PQ), artemisinin/artemether, artemisinin based combination therapy, quinine, CQ plus tafenoquine, chlorguanil plus dapsone, azithromycin, or placebo. Treatment efficacy was not significantly different between the CQ monotherapy group and that of the CQ with PQ 14 day group at 28 day follow-up (55/711, 7.7% vs 35/712, 4.9%; P=0.16). Evidence from the trials identified for this review draw a fairly clear conclusion about the relative efficacy and safety of CQ for treating uncomplicated P. vivax malaria infection. However, further research in this field with well powered, randomized, non-inferiority design, using the standardized protocol is needed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Women's access and provider practices for the case management of malaria during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends prompt diagnosis and quinine plus clindamycin for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the first trimester and artemisinin-based combination therapies in subsequent trimesters. We undertook a systematic review of women's access to and healthcare provider adherence to WHO case management policy for malaria in pregnant women.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives for the treatment of malaria

This review of rectally administered artemisinin derivatives for malaria treatment concluded that they demonstrated acceptable therapeutic efficacy, including in severe illness. The reliability of this conclusion was unclear as some aspects of the review, including the synthesis and validity assessment, were poorly reported and potentially inappropriate.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

The safety of artemisinins during pregnancy: a pressing question

This review evaluated the safety of artemisinin compounds given during pregnancy for the treatment of malaria. It concluded that, while these combinations appear effective, data are very limited. The included studies could not rule out rare serious adverse events or help determine the risk-benefit profile of artemisinin compounds in the first and second trimesters. Despite some methodological limitations, the review's conclusions appear broadly appropriate.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

A review of alternative treatments for tinnitus

This review evaluated the effectiveness of alternative treatments for tinnitus. The authors concluded that hypnotherapy improved some subjective measures. Some of the methods used to conduct the review were not reported and the conclusions were based on evidence from two small, apparently methodologically flawed, studies. Consequently, the evidence was very limited.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (97)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (1)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...