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How do NSAIDs compare in reducing pain?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: May 1, 2011

Acute musculoskeletal pain describes conditions like a sprained ankle or a muscle pull. These usually get better over two or three weeks without treatment, but can be very painful while they last.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 15, 2015

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States (U.S.). Aspirin may inhibit CRC development and related mortality.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2015

This guideline covers the physical, emotional, social and spiritual elements of end of life care, and focuses on improving the child or young person’s quality of life and supporting their family and carers. There are, for instance, recommendations on managing distressing symptoms and providing care and bereavement support after death. Recommendations have also been made about how services should be delivered. The guideline is aimed at all providers of paediatric end of life care, whatever their level of practise, and also for children and young people with life-limiting conditions and their parents or carers.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Alliance (UK).

Version: December 2016

Low back pain is common, and many pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies are available. This review examines the evidence on the comparative benefits and harms of noninvasive treatments for low back pain.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2016

This guideline covers the assessment and management of low back pain and sciatica in adults over the age of 16 years.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: November 2016

The guideline covers men (18 and over) with a clinical working diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Options for conservative, pharmacological, surgical, and complementary or alternative treatments are considered in terms of clinical and cost effectiveness.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010

We conducted this systematic review to support the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in updating its recommendation on screening for cognitive impairment in older adults. Our review addresses five questions: 1) Does screening for cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults improve decisionmaking, patient, family/caregiver, or societal outcomes?; 2) What is the test performance of screening instruments to detect dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling older adult primary care patients?; 3) What are the harms of screening for cognitive impairment?; 4) Do interventions for early dementia or MCI in older adults improve decisionmaking, patient, family/caregiver, or societal outcomes?; and 5) What are the harms of interventions for cognitive impairment?

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2013

There are over 400,000 people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the UK. Although this makes it a common disorder, there are numerous other conditions ahead of it in terms of numbers, and indeed as causes of excess mortality. What this does not capture however, is the dreadful morbidity associated with the disease. The synovitis of RA affects multiple sites causing widespread pain, and the subsequent destruction of the joints can lead to severe disability affecting all aspects of motor function from walking to fine movements of the hand. Furthermore, RA is not simply a disease of the joints but can affect many other organs causing, for example, widespread vasculitis or severe lung fibrosis. More recently it has become apparent that RA is associated with an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease and significant increased risk of premature mortality.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).

Version: February 2009

Cutaneous melanoma is increasing in incidence in many of the developed countries as this form of cancer occurs predominantly in pale skinned people who expose themselves to intense sunlight, especially when taking holidays in sunny places. The increased work-load for melanoma services resulting from this increase is furthermore complicated by the fact that the individuals with the most rapid rate of increase in incidence are those over the age of 60 and especially men. Male sex and age are two poor prognostic factors for melanoma and therefore the likelihood is that despite efforts to promote primary and secondary melanoma prevention, melanoma mortality is likely to increase rather than decrease. Although the incidence trends described above are of concern, for the first time in very recent years, the advent of therapies targeted to driver mutations (such as inhibitors of BRAF) and of T cell checkpoint inhibitors which both have efficacy in melanoma is in the process of rapidly changing management of this disease. Use of both classes of drugs has been the subject of NICE technology appraisals in recent years and these have been cross referenced in the text.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: July 2015

All drugs have the potential to cause side effects, also known as ‘adverse drug reactions’, but not all of these are allergic in nature. Other reactions are idiosyncratic, pseudo-allergic or caused by drug intolerance. The British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) defines drug allergy as an adverse drug reaction with an established immunological mechanism. The mechanism at presentation may not be apparent from the clinical history and it cannot always be established whether a drug reaction is allergic or non-allergic without investigation. Therefore, this guideline has defined drug allergy as any reaction caused by a drug with clinical features compatible with an immunological mechanism.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: September 2014

This guideline addresses the management of an acute painful sickle cell episode in patients presenting to hospital until discharge. This includes the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, identifying the signs and symptoms of acute complications, skills and settings for managing an acute painful episode, and the information and support needs of patients.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: June 2012

Proton pump inhibitors decrease secretion of gastric acid. They act by blocking the last enzyme in the system that actively transports acid from gastric parietal cells into the gastrointestinal lumen, hydrogen–potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the proton pump. Omeprazole, the first drug in this class, was introduced in 1989. Since then, 4 other proton pump inhibitors have been introduced: lansoprazole (1995), rabeprazole (1999), pantoprazole (2000), and esomeprazole (2001). In 2003 omeprazole became available over-the-counter in the United States. The purpose of this review is to compare the benefits and harms of different PPIs.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2009

Nausea and vomiting are major concerns for patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery with general anesthesia. Risk factors associated with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting include emetogenicity of the chemotherapy regimen, dose, speed of intravenous infusion, female gender, age under 50 years, history of ethanol consumption, and history of prior chemotherapy. Factors predictive of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting include site of irradiation (in particular, total body irradiation and radiation fields that include the abdomen), total field size, dose per fraction, age, and predisposition for emesis (history of sickness during pregnancy or motion sickness). Female gender, a history of motion sickness or prior postoperative nausea and vomiting, nonsmoking status, and use of postoperative opioids have been suggested as factors predictive of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The objective of this review was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of newer antiemetic drugs including the 5-HT3 and NK-1 antagonists.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: January 2009

This guideline covers the management of persistent or recurrent low back pain defined as non-specific low back pain that has lasted for more than 6 weeks, but for less than 12 months. It does not address the management of severe disabling low back pain that has lasted longer than 12 months.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: May 2009

Sciatica is a symptom characterised by well-localised leg pain with a sharp, shooting or burning quality that radiates down the back of the leg and normally to the foot or ankle. It is often associated with numbness or altered sensation in the leg.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2011

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 12, 2017

Two of the five guidelines in the NICE trauma suite relate to fractures. These are titled non-complex and complex fractures. In broad terms, non-complex fractures are those likely to be treated at the receiving hospital, whereas complex fractures require transfer or the consideration of transfer of the injured person to a specialist.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: February 2016

The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the United Kingdom ranges between 84–172 /100,000/year, equating to 50–70,000 hospital admissions per year. This is therefore a relatively common medical emergency; it is also one that more often affects socially deprived communities.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2012

Many non-specialist healthcare professionals can find the diagnosis of headache difficult, and both people with headache and their healthcare professionals can be concerned about possible serious underlying causes. This leads to variability in care and may mean that people with headaches are not always offered the most appropriate treatments. People with headache alone are unlikely to have a serious underlying disease. Comparisons between people with headache referred to secondary care and those treated in primary care show that they do not differ in terms of headache impact or disability.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: September 2012

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