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Many non-specialist healthcare professionals can find the diagnosis of headache difficult, and both people with headache and their healthcare professionals can be concerned about possible serious underlying causes. This leads to variability in care and may mean that people with headaches are not always offered the most appropriate treatments. People with headache alone are unlikely to have a serious underlying disease. Comparisons between people with headache referred to secondary care and those treated in primary care show that they do not differ in terms of headache impact or disability.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: September 2012

Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 10, 2018

In the United States, dietary supplements are commonly used to prevent chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2013


Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 24, 2000

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) describes abnormal kidney function and/or structure. It is common and often exists together with other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: March 2013

Sick or preterm newborn infants may require intravenous nutrition, including intravenous administration of solutions containing amino acids. Newborn infants need cysteine (an amino acid) for growth under certain conditions. Cysteine may decrease the chance of liver disease and brittle bones. This systemic review was done to analyze whether adding cysteine (or related compounds) to intravenous nutrition affects growth and other outcomes in newborn infants. Five trials studied the effects of adding cysteine to intravenous nutrition that did not contain cysteine. Addition of cysteine significantly improved the babies' ability to build body proteins (analyzed in four studies); however, it did not improve growth (analyzed in one study); no other outcomes were available. One large randomized trial studied the effect of adding another chemical, N‐acetyl‐cysteine, to intravenous nutrition that already contained cysteine. This study showed no benefit and no toxicity of this intervention. We conclude that present data are insufficient to justify routine addition of cysteine to the intravenous nutrition of newborn infants that does not contain cysteine. Available evidence does not support routine addition of N‐acetylcysteine to intravenous nutrition of newborn infants containing cysteine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 18, 2006

With the exception of support for the use of policosanol and garlic for hyperlipidaemia, the authors revealed an inconclusive evidence base. The complexity of this topic area, together with some methodological limitations of the review process, means that the extent to which the conclusions are reliable is unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

The Renal National Service Framework (NSF), and the subsequent NICE Clinical Practice Guideline for early identification and management of adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary and secondary care (CG73), served to emphasise the change in focus in renal medicine from treatment of established kidney disease to earlier identification and prevention of kidney disease.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2014

BACKGROUND: This systematic review aims to determine the potential benefits of enteral multinutrient support (oral or tube) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving maintenance dialysis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term (>3 months) remineralizing effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on early caries lesions in vivo.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Problems with mineral and bone metabolism are very common in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) which can lead to broken bones (fracture), heart and blood circulation (cardiovascular) problems, and sometimes death. Many pharmaceutical treatments used to treat mineral‐bone disease can have side effects and cause problems for patients. We wanted to find out if specific diets (such as low protein or phosphorus intake) were better or worse than normal diets or pharmaceutical treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 16, 2015

These guidelines cover most aspects of nutrition support in adult patients (>18 years) who are either malnourished or are at ‘risk’ of malnutrition. In some cases specific guidance related to patients in specific care settings or with specific diseases has been provided but in general the guidance is applicable to patients whatever their setting (hospital or community) or disease. The guideline therefore includes: information on the prevalence of malnutrition and the benefits of good nutrition; guidance on the appropriate forums for the organisation of nutrition support in all settings; guidance on who should be screened for malnutrition and when, along with the criteria for consideration when assessing patients’ nutritional status; the general indications for nutrition support together with ethical and legal considerations that may arise; guidance on the process and special considerations required to prescribe nutrition support and details information on the important parameters to monitor for patients receiving nutrition support; detailed guidance on the administration of oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition including; the appropriate types of access for enteral and parenteral nutrition and the optimum mode of delivering these; specific guidance on the management of providing nutrition support to patients with dysphagia; issues to consider for patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition support in the community; issues arising for patients and their carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

Version: February 2006

Cinacalcet, the first calcimimetic to be approved for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in the chronic kidney disease patients, offers a novel therapeutic approach to SHPT. The aim of this meta-analysis is to access the efficacy and safety of cinacalcet on bone and mineral metabolism disorders in the dialysis patients with SHPT. Randomized controlled trials on cinacalcet combined with vitamin D and/or phosphate binders in the dialysis patients with SHPT were identified in Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and the Cochrane library. Data were analyzed with RevMan software. We compared the proportion of patients achieving the biochemical targets recommended by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines and the incidence of adverse events between the cinacalcet and control groups. Six trials involving 2,548 patients were included. A greater proportion of patients in the cinacalcet group compared with the conventional group achieved the KDOQI targets. The relative risks (RRs) were parathyroid hormone (PTH) (RR = 3.51, 95 % CI: 2.38-5.17), calcium (RR = 2.04, 95 % CI: 1.76-2.37), phosphorus (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 0.83-1.60), and calcium-phosphorus product (Ca × P) (RR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.69), the number of patients simultaneously achieving the KDOQI targets for PTH + Ca × P was also greater (RR = 3.89, 95 % CI: 2.36-6.41), with p < 0.001 for each. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hypocalcemia, which had a higher incidence in the cinacalcet group, but were usually mild to moderate in severity and transient. Compared with conventional therapy, treatment with cinacalcet results in more patients achieving KDOQI targets and offers an effective and safety therapeutic option for controlling mineral and bone disorders in the dialysis patients with SHPT.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

In 2009, the Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board constituted a Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) committee to undertake a review of the evidence that had emerged (since the 1997 DRI report) on the relationship of vitamin D and calcium, both individually and combined, to a wide range of health outcomes, and potential revision of the DRI values for these nutrients. To support that review, several United States and Canadian Federal Government agencies commissioned a systematic review of the scientific literature for use during the deliberations by the committee. The intent was to support a transparent literature review process and provide a foundation for subsequent reviews of the nutrients. The committee used the resulting literature review in their revision of the DRIs.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014

Approximately one billion people worldwide are deficient in at least one vitamin or mineral (also known of micronutrients). Iron, vitamin A, zinc and iodine deficiencies are very frequent among children of preschool (aged 24 months to less than 5 years) and school age (5 to 12 years of age), limiting their health and daily physical performance. Anaemia, the condition in which red blood cells have limited capacity to carry oxygen, frequently results after prolonged iron deficiency.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 23, 2017

Dyslipidemias, disorders of lipid metabolism, are important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Identification of children with dyslipidemias could lead to interventions aimed at decreasing their risk of CHD as adults.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2007

Study found insufficient evidence to support the use of bone turnover markers in routine clinical practice for monitoring osteoporosis treatment response. Only five studies identified were randomised controlled trials; none assessed cost-effectiveness and none evaluated the clinical effectiveness of bone turnover marker monitoring for treatment management. The results were inconsistent and inconclusive, and a decision-analytic model was not developed. Further research is needed.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: February 2014

This clinical guideline concerns the management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and their complications from preconception to the postnatal period. For the purpose of this guideline, ‘pregnancy’ includes the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum (6 weeks after birth) periods. The guideline has been developed with the aim of providing guidance in the following areas: information and advice for women who have chronic hypertension and are pregnant or planning to become pregnant; information and advice for women who are pregnant and at increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; management of pregnancy with chronic hypertension; management of pregnancy in women with gestational hypertension; management of pregnancy for women with pre-eclampsia before admission to critical care level 2 setting; management of pre-eclampsia and its complications in a critical care setting; information, advice and support for women and healthcare professionals after discharge to primary care following a pregnancy complicated by hypertension; care of the fetus during pregnancy complicated by a hypertensive disorder.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2010

This guideline covers areas relevant to the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reflecting the complete patient journey, from the person presenting with IBS symptoms, positive diagnosis and management, targeted at symptom control. The guideline incorporates Cochrane reviews, published NICE clinical and public health guidance, Health Technology Assessment reports, systematic and health economic reviews produced by the National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care. Recommendations are based on clinical and cost effectiveness evidence, and where this is insufficient, the GDG used all available information sources and experience to make consensus recommendations using nominal group technique.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK).

Version: February 2008

Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) result from genetic mutations that cause defects in any of the five enzymes of the urea cycle in the liver: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase, and arginase; in the co-factor producer N-acetyl glutamate synthetase; or in the ornithine transporter and citrin. The estimated incidence of UCDs ranges from one in 22,179 births to one in 53,717 births. The most recent estimate of incidence of UCDs for the US is around one in 35,000 births. It is estimated that approximately 11 new cases of UCDs will be diagnosed each year in Canada. The incidence of OTC deficiency (one in 56,500 live births) is higher than other UCDs. Deficiencies in the urea cycle may result in excessive ammonia levels due to impaired metabolism, which can be life-threatening and result in permanent neurological damage if left untreated. Treatment should be initiated as soon as a diagnosis of a UCD is suspected and should proceed simultaneously with the diagnostic evaluation.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: April 2017

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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