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Hepatitis C is a virus that infects people’s liver. When an infection goes on for a long time, it is said to be ‘chronic’.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 6, 2014

Giardiasis is an infection of the small intestine caused by a microscopic organism called Giardia lamblia. The infection is passed from person to person by ingesting faecally contaminated water or food. Symptoms frequently include diarrhoea, abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss. In this review, we assess alternatives to the most commonly used treatment for giardiasis; metronidazole given orally for five or more days.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 12, 2012

Cryptosporidiosis is a disease that causes diarrhoea, and can be life‐threatening in individuals whose bodies are not able to resist infections. It causes disease in the both the developed and the developing world. This review of trials found insufficient evidence to say whether any drug is able to reduce or cure the symptoms of Cryptosporidium infection or to effectively kill the organism among individuals who cannot resist infections. A limited amount of evidence was found indicating that the drug nitaxozanide can kill the organism in individuals with a normal immunity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 24, 2007

A systematic review of 102 clinical studies published from December 1978 to August 2011 examined the comparative effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, and prevention strategies for Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in adults. The review did not include an evaluation of other causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This summary is provided to inform discussions of options with patients and to assist in decisionmaking along with consideration of a patient's values and preferences. However, reviews of evidence should not be construed to represent clinical recommendations or guidelines. The full report is available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/cdiff.cfm.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Clinicians [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 19, 2011

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that can live harmlessly in the colon, but when an individual takes an antibiotic for another condition, the C. difficile can grow and replace most of the normal bacterial flora that live in the colon. This overgrowth causes C. difficile‐associated diarrhoea (also known as C. difficile infection ‐ CDI). The symptoms of CDI include diarrhoea, fever and pain. CDI may be only mild but in many cases is very serious and, if untreated, can be fatal. There are many proposed treatments for CDI, but the most common are withdrawing the antibiotic that caused the CDI and prescribing an antibiotic that kills the bacterium. Many antibiotics have been tested in clinical trials for effectiveness and this review studies the comparisons of these antibiotics. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 3, 2017

When young children suddenly experience the onset of diarrhoea, with or without vomiting, infective gastroenteritis is by far the most common explanation. A range of enteric viruses, bacteria and protozoal pathogens may be responsible. Viral infections account for most cases in the developed world. Gastroenteritis is very common, with many infants and young children experiencing more than one episode in a year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: April 2009

To conduct a systematic review and synthesize evidence for differences in the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and the effects of interventions to prevent and treat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adult patients.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2011

Update a 2011 review of differences in accuracy of diagnostic tests and the effects of interventions to prevent and treat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2016

Multiplex testing in suspected infectious gastroenteritis has uncertain clinical value: testing generally identifies pathogens identified by conventional testing but also additional positive results of uncertain clinical importance.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2017

The Minneapolis VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program was asked to conduct a systematic evidence review regarding the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI), in part to help guide policy makers within the Veterans Health Administration determine if the evidence supporting MT was sufficient to implement FMT programs in their facilities. The topic was nominated by Jason Dominitz, MD, MHS on behalf of the VA Gastroenterology Field Advisory Committee.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: July 2014

While in its early years the HIV epidemic affected primarily the male and the young, nowadays the population living with HIV/AIDS comprises approximately 24 percent women, and its age composition has shifted towards older ages. Many women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS also live with the medical and social conditions that accompany aging.

Technical Briefs - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2016

The guideline applies to adults (aged 18 and over) with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), or both.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: September 2014

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults. The spread of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile has caused recent outbreaks of C. difficile infection. Metronidazole and vancomycin are the antibiotics of choice to treat C. difficile infection. An assessment was prepared to help guide the choice of therapy for C. difficile infection and to inform reimbursement policies in the Canadian publicly funded health care system.

CADTH Technology Report - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: January 2011

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurs in nearly one-third of patients who develop an initial infection. Recurrent CDI (RCDI) is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and cost. Treatment for RCDI has not been not well examined.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

This review compared the effectiveness and harms of antibiotic treatments in adult patients with Clostridium difficile infection. The authors concluded that no antimicrobial agent was clearly superior for initial cure and recurrence was less frequent with fidaxomicin than vancomycin. The suboptimal quality of studies, small sample sizes and variable study characteristics suggest that the cautious conclusion is justified.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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