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The purpose of this report is to review the clinical effectiveness of tramadol or tramadol combinations for the management of pain in adults. This report is an update of a previous Rapid Response Report (Reference List) and includes additional details.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: February 2, 2015

This guideline covers the assessment and management of low back pain and sciatica in adults over the age of 16 years.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: November 2016

Sciatica is a symptom characterised by well-localised leg pain with a sharp, shooting or burning quality that radiates down the back of the leg and normally to the foot or ankle. It is often associated with numbness or altered sensation in the leg.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2011

People with heart disease are often prescribed aspirin. Testing the function of platelets in the blood may be able to assess if aspirin is working properly. This review assessed all the evidence on the results of platelet function testing linked to the risk of having another cardiovascular event (such as a heart attack or stroke). The review found that people classified as ‘aspirin resistant’ by platelet function testing were, on average, slightly more at risk of having another cardiovascular event. However, the increase in risk was very small and it was not certain which was the most accurate of the platelet function tests available. Therefore, at the moment, the result of platelet function testing on its own is not very informative in determining a person’s future risk of cardiovascular events.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: May 2015

Cutaneous melanoma is increasing in incidence in many of the developed countries as this form of cancer occurs predominantly in pale skinned people who expose themselves to intense sunlight, especially when taking holidays in sunny places. The increased work-load for melanoma services resulting from this increase is furthermore complicated by the fact that the individuals with the most rapid rate of increase in incidence are those over the age of 60 and especially men. Male sex and age are two poor prognostic factors for melanoma and therefore the likelihood is that despite efforts to promote primary and secondary melanoma prevention, melanoma mortality is likely to increase rather than decrease. Although the incidence trends described above are of concern, for the first time in very recent years, the advent of therapies targeted to driver mutations (such as inhibitors of BRAF) and of T cell checkpoint inhibitors which both have efficacy in melanoma is in the process of rapidly changing management of this disease. Use of both classes of drugs has been the subject of NICE technology appraisals in recent years and these have been cross referenced in the text.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: July 2015

We compared the effectiveness and harms of anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and the lidocaine patchin adults with neuropathic pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: June 2011

Expert-reviewed information summary about the causes and management of nutrition problems that occur in patients with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: November 17, 2017

Two of the five guidelines in the NICE trauma suite relate to fractures. These are titled non-complex and complex fractures. In broad terms, non-complex fractures are those likely to be treated at the receiving hospital, whereas complex fractures require transfer or the consideration of transfer of the injured person to a specialist.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: February 2016

AHRQ recognizes that periodic assessments of the evidence base supporting each of the comparative effectiveness reviews is an important and necessary part of the Effective Health Care (EHC) Program. The rapidity with which new research findings accumulate makes it imperative that the evidence be assessed periodically to determine the need for a full-scale update. The EHC Program, then, initiated concurrent and parallel work to address this need both methodologically and programmatically. The development of methods guidance for updating was initiated to inform the research of systematic reviewers. This methodologic guidance will supplement the EHC Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews (www.effectiveheathcare.gov). In parallel with the methods effort, an initial, rapid program assessment was commissioned to assess the need for the findings of the CERs completed to that point to be updated. The Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center (SCEPC) was tasked with conducting this assessment. Findings from the assessment were presented to AHRQ for consideration within the usual program criteria to prioritize the topics for updating within the EHC Program. This document presents the findings from the assessment for public information and transparency.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 10, 2009

The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the United Kingdom ranges between 84–172 /100,000/year, equating to 50–70,000 hospital admissions per year. This is therefore a relatively common medical emergency; it is also one that more often affects socially deprived communities.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2012

The guideline covers men (18 and over) with a clinical working diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Options for conservative, pharmacological, surgical, and complementary or alternative treatments are considered in terms of clinical and cost effectiveness.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010

Many non-specialist healthcare professionals can find the diagnosis of headache difficult, and both people with headache and their healthcare professionals can be concerned about possible serious underlying causes. This leads to variability in care and may mean that people with headaches are not always offered the most appropriate treatments. People with headache alone are unlikely to have a serious underlying disease. Comparisons between people with headache referred to secondary care and those treated in primary care show that they do not differ in terms of headache impact or disability.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: September 2012

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood soft tissue sarcomas.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 2, 2018

Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes include Lynch syndrome and several polyposis syndromes (familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and serrated polyposis syndrome). Learn about the genetics, clinical manifestations, management, and psychosocial aspects of these and other hereditary colon cancer syndromes in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 11, 2018

OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of intramuscular stimulation (IMS).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

OBJECTIVES: To provide an updated document assessing the global, NSAID-specific, and time dependent risk of gastrointestinal (GI) complications through meta-analyses of high quality studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

BACKGROUND: Trials on sling exercise (SE), commonly performed to manage chronic low back pain (LBP), yield conflicting results. This study aimed to review the effects of SE on chronic LBP.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

BACKGROUND: The risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications associated with the use of NSAIDs is a serious public health concern. The risk varies between individual NSAIDs; however, there is little information on the risk associated with some NSAIDs and on the impact of risk factors. These data are necessary to evaluate the benefit-risk of individual NSAIDs for clinical and health policy decision making. Within the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme, the Safety Of non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [SOS] project aims to develop decision models for regulatory and clinical use of individual NSAIDs according to their GI and cardiovascular safety.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

This review concluded that there is an increased risk of cardiovascular events with rofecoxib that are not seen with commonly used doses of celecoxib, and that there is no protective effect of naproxen. The authors also raised concerns over the safety of diclofenac. Given the limitations of this review, the conclusions should be regarded with some caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

This review found that celecoxib was the safest cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor when given in the lowest possible dose. The limited search, inadequate reporting of review methods, lack of a quality assessment of the included studies, and reliance upon data from observational studies to compare drugs mean that any conclusions might not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

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