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CONTEXT: Despite the investigation of multiple therapeutic options, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a devastating, progressively fatal disease. Much interest has focused on the use of interferon (IFN)-gamma1b therapy, but the efficacy of this treatment has not been proven.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Survival rates after lung transplantation are the lowest among solid organ transplantations. Long-term survival is limited by the development of chronic rejection, known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Risk factors, such as acute rejection and cytomegalovirus infection, contribute to the development of BOS. However, these risk factors alone do not explain the interindividual variability seen in the development of BOS. There is growing evidence that genetic variations might contribute to an individual's susceptibility to rejection. In this systematic review, based on a literature search through Medline and Embase, an overview is given of the genetic polymorphisms that have been investigated in lung transplant recipients in relation to the devlopment of BOS. Functional genetic polymorphisms in the genes of IFNG (+874 A/T), TGFB1 (+915 G/C), and IL6 (-174 G/C) have been found to be associated with the development of BOS and allograft fibrosis after lung transplantation. However, confirmation was not consistent across all studied cohorts. Genetic polymorphisms in the genes of several Toll-like receptors, mannose-binding lectin, CD14, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, and matrix metalloproteinase-7 were also found to be associated with the development of BOS, but these studies need to be replicated in independent cohorts. This review shows that there may be involvement of genetic polymorphisms in the development of BOS. Genetic risk profiling of lung transplant recipients could be a promising approach for the future, enabling individualized risk stratification and personalized immunosuppressive treatment after transplantation. Further studies are needed to define risk alleles.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

The author concluded that the ELISPOT assay was more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The results of the review did not allow calculation of comparative data on sensitivity for the two tests and so the conclusions are unlikely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

This review reported that IGRAs, particularly QuantiFERON-TB Gold and Gold In-Tube, had excellent specificity, as did the tuberculin skin test in non-BCG-vaccinated people. Sensitivity was not consistent across tests, but T-SPOT.TB seemed to be more sensitive. The limitations of both the included studies and the review mean that the results should be treated with some caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

To review evidence about targeted screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among adults in primary care settings.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2016

The nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare facilities is a major public health concern. Studies showed that latent TB infection (LTBI) rate among healthcare workers is higher than among general population, and the incidence is higher in healthcare workers who work in high-risk areas. This Rapid Response report aims to review the clinical evidence regarding factors that trigger the need for a contact investigation following patient and staff exposure to a patient with TB in a hospital setting. Evidence-based guidelines associated with best practice for contact investigation will also be examined.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: April 30, 2014

Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) frequently recurs and can progress to muscle-invasive disease. This report reviews the current evidence on emerging approaches to diagnosing and treating bladder cancer.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2015

When you have rheumatoid arthritis, your immune system, which normally fights infection, attacks the lining of your joints, causing swelling, stiffness and pain. The small joints of your hands and feet are usually affected first. There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis at present, so treatments aim to relieve pain and stiffness and improve your ability to move. Biologics are medications that can reduce joint inflammation, improve symptoms and prevent joint damage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

OBJECTIVE: Biologic agents are increasingly used in the rheumatic diseases. Their role in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) is uncertain. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of biologic agents in SSc. We review the evidence for the use of biologic agents to improve inflammatory arthritis, disability, and skin score, and we review adverse effects with biologic agents in patients with SSc.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

This clinical guideline was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. It sets out clear, evidenceand consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010

While in its early years the HIV epidemic affected primarily the male and the young, nowadays the population living with HIV/AIDS comprises approximately 24 percent women, and its age composition has shifted towards older ages. Many women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS also live with the medical and social conditions that accompany aging.

Technical Briefs - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2016

The review concluded that the maintenance or the consolidation therapy approach failed to improve the outcomes of small-cell lung cancer. A survival advantage was suggested for maintenance chemotherapy and interferon-alpha, but further research is needed. The authors' conclusions were suitably cautious and are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Chronic hepatitis B describes a spectrum of disease usually characterised by the presence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the blood or serum for longer than 6 months. In some people, chronic hepatitis B is inactive and does not present significant health problems, but others may progress to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The progression of liver disease is associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in the blood. Without antiviral treatment, the 5-year cumulative incidence of cirrhosis ranges from 8 to 20%. People with cirrhosis face a significant risk of decompensated liver disease if they remain untreated. Five-year survival rates among people with untreated decompensated cirrhosis can be as low as 15%. Chronic hepatitis B can be divided into e antigen- (HBeAg) positive or HBeAg-negative disease based on the presence or absence of e antigen. The presence of HBeAg is typically associated with higher rates of viral replication and therefore increased infectivity.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2013

This report will review evidence investigating the uncertainty surrounding the clinical effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for both the prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: March 10, 2016

These are the first World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, and complement similar recently published guidance by WHO on the prevention, care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

World Health Organization.

Version: March 2015

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that is more common in women than in men, by a factor of approximately 3:1. Canada has the fifth-highest worldwide prevalence at 240 per 100,000 persons.

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 2013

An estimated 250,000 Canadians have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; however, the exact number affected is not known, as 30% to 70% of patients are unaware that they have been infected and limited population level surveillance has been carried out in Canada to document prevalent cases. While the incidence of HCV infection in the US and Canada appears to be stable or declining, liver-related morbidity and mortality are expected to increase over the coming decades, as those who are already infected age and develop progressive liver disease.

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 2014

The objective of this systematic review is to examine the beneficial and harmful effects of teriflunomide for the treatment of relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 2014

The objective of this study was to assess the comparative cost effectiveness of regimens for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection (genotypes 1 to 4).

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: January 2016

The objective of this report was to perform a systematic review of the beneficial and harmful effects of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) G1 infection in adults.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015

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