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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2016

The study found that evidence on the measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in the breath of patients with symptoms of asthma is difficult to interpret or inconclusive with regard to its role in diagnosis or management but that economic analysis indicates that FeNO monitoring could have value in diagnostic and management settings.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2015

The aims of this report were ■ to assess the benefit of tiotropium bromide compared to placebo or other pharmacological treatment options, alone or in combination, and ■ the comparative benefit assessment of the two forms of application of tiotropium bromide, namely the HandiHaler and the Respimat, in each case for the long-term inhalation treatment of patients with COPD with respect to patient-relevant outcomes.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care: Executive Summaries [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 26, 2012

Study found that both colistimethate sodium dry powder for inhalation (DPI) and tobramycin DPI were non-inferior to nebulised tobramycin for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis, and their cost-effectiveness was uncertain.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: December 2013

This guideline offers best practice advice on the identification and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It aims to define the symptoms, signs and investigations required to establish a diagnosis of COPD. It also aims to define the factors that are necessary to assess its severity, provide prognostic information and guide best management. It gives guidance on the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of patients with stable COPD, and on the management of exacerbations. The interface with surgery and intensive therapy units (ITU) are also discussed.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2010

We reviewed the evidence on the effects of combined inhalers in people with COPD when compared with placebo. We particularly focused on whether combined inhalers are a good but safe treatment for adults with COPD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

The aims of the planned research result from the wording of the commission of the Federal Joint Committee, as well as from the new approval and extension of approval in Germany for fixed combinations of ICS and LABA in the treatment of patients with asthma.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care: Executive Summaries [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 5, 2008

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways that causes flare‐ups of wheezing, chest tightness and coughing. Treatment with inhaled steroids and other inhaled drugs that relax the airways (bronchodilators) often gives good control of symptoms, prevents serious flare‐ups and improves quality of life. Several steroids and bronchodilators (long‐ and short‐acting) as well as combinations of these treatments are available in a single inhaler.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

The aims of the present investigation were: the evaluation of the benefits and harms of formoterol/budesonide administered by a fixed combination inhaler compared with formoterol and budesonide administered by separate inhalers in patients with asthma. the evaluation of the benefits and harms of salmeterol/fluticasone administered by a fixed combination inhaler compared with salmeterol and fluticasone administered by separate inhalers in patients with asthma. the evaluation of the benefits and harms of formoterol/budesonide administered by a fixed combination inhaler compared with salmeterol/fluticasone administered by a fixed combination inhaler.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care: Executive Summaries [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 30, 2007

Inhaled drugs for COPD have been shown to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and prevent or treat flare‐ups. Treatment with these inhaled drugs tends to begin with one inhaler, and additional therapies are introduced as necessary. For persistent or worsening symptoms, long‐acting inhaled drugs taken once or twice daily are preferred over short‐acting ones. Several Cochrane reviews have looked at the risks and benefits of specific long‐acting inhaled therapies compared with placebo or other treatments. However for patients and clinicians, it is important to understand the benefits of these treatments relative to each other, and whether a particular type of inhaled therapy is more beneficial than the others.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Asthma is the most common long‐term medical condition in children. Poorly controlled asthma often leads to flare‐ups that require extra treatment, hospital stays, or treatment in the emergency department.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. Fewer than half of the estimated 24 million Americans with airflow obstruction have received a COPD diagnosis, and diagnosis often occurs in advanced stages of the disease.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2008

Various strategies are used in the prevention and management of asthma. Pharmacological management includes, among other drugs, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and short- and long-acting beta2 agonists (SABAs/LABAs). Both ICS and LABAs are inhaled controller medications that need to be taken on a long-term daily basis for maximum symptom control. Medication delivery can be via a number of different types of inhaler device; these differ in the efficiency with which they deliver the drug to the lower respiratory tract.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2008

The study found little evidence of benefit in providing self-management support to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease shortly after discharge from hospital. There was a suggestion of some gains in health-related quality of life, but this finding was potentially subject to bias.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: May 2015

Various strategies are used in the prevention and management of asthma. Pharmacological management includes, among other drugs, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and short- and long-acting beta2 agonists (SABAs/LABAs). Both ICS and LABAs are inhaled controller medications that need to be taken on a long-term daily basis for maximum symptom control. The medications can be delivered via a number of different types of inhaler devices; these differ in the efficiency with which they deliver the drug to the lower respiratory tract.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2008

The objective of this review is to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of mepolizumab 100 mg subcutaneous (SC) for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA) whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with high-dose inhaled corticosteroid(s)(ICS) and one or more additional asthma controllers).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: November 2016

Report finds that treatment strategy involving augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with lithium or an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAP) is likely to be beneficial in people with treatment-resistant depression.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2013

Randomised controlled trials have not provided consistent evidence of benefit of domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (compared with usual care) for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A speculative economic model found that under certain conditions domiciliary NIV may be cost-effective at a threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2015

INTRODUCTION: Long-acting beta agonists and inhaled corticosteroids combination products (LABA-ICS) are widely used in the treatment of asthma. However, there appears to be little data on their cardiovascular safety. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the available studies and trials on the cardiovascular safety of LABA-ICS in adults with asthma.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

BACKGROUND: Respiratory medications are frequently prescribed for use in children. Several studies have reported information on the safety of asthma medications in clinical studies in adults, but information about safety in children is scarce.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

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