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Glaucoma: Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

This guideline covers adults (18 and older) with a diagnosis of chronic open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and those with chronic open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension associated with pseudoexfoliation or pigment dispersion. In addition, the guideline will cover populations who have a higher prevalence of glaucoma and may have worse clinical outcomes including people with a family history of glaucoma, younger people (<50 years) and people who are of black African or black Caribbean descent. Options for pharmacological, surgical, laser and complimentary or alternative treatments are considered in terms of clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

Version: April 2009

Cognitive Outcomes After Cardiovascular Procedures in Older Adults: A Systematic Review [Internet]

To summarize current evidence on intermediate- and long-term cognitive outcomes after coronary and carotid revascularization, cardiac valve procedures, and ablation for atrial fibrillation in older adults, and their association with procedure-related stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and other procedure and patient characteristics.

Technology Assessment Report - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 17, 2014
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Identification and Management of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) [Internet]

While the NHS in England and Wales has made spectacular progress in improving the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, we now need to work harder to identify those who are at particularly high risk of myocardial infarction.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: August 2008
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Spinal Injury: Assessment and Initial Management

The scope of this guideline is the assessment, imaging and early management of spinal injury and does not address rehabilitation. It is important to recognise that early management is intrinsically connected to rehabilitation and some later complications may be avoided with changes in early care. Early and ongoing collaborative multidisciplinary care across a trauma network is vital in ensuring that the patient with a spinal injury receives the best possible care.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: February 2016
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Safety of Probiotics to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease

To catalog what is known about the safety of interventions containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and/or Bacillus strains used as probiotic agents in research to reduce the risk of, prevent, or treat disease.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011

Dyspepsia and Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease: Investigation and Management of Dyspepsia, Symptoms Suggestive of Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease, or Both

The guideline applies to adults (aged 18 and over) with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), or both.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: September 2014

Myeloma: Diagnosis and Management

The management of myeloma is complex and challenging. It increasingly involves the use of expensive drugs. The guideline will aim to raise standards nationally while allowing clinical flexibility and defining a common pathway for patients at various stages of their illness, and of different ages and levels of fitness. Although a consistent approach to management is desirable, it needs to reflect the very different groups of patients with myeloma from the fit and suitable for transplant, fairly fit but not suitable for transplant to patients who are extremely frail and/or unwell.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2016
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Antithrombotic Agents for the Prevention of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation [Internet]

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with AF are at increased risk of systemic embolism (SE) and stroke, which can cause death, disability, and impaired quality of life. Antithrombotic therapies, such as oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs, can reduce the risk for stroke and systemic thromboembolism and are recommended for most AF patients with risk factors for stroke. Antithrombotic therapies are also associated with a risk of bleeding, and their efficacy for stroke prevention should always be balanced against a patient’s risk of hemorrhage.

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: March 2013

Implications for the NHS of inward and outward medical tourism: a policy and economic analysis using literature review and mixed-methods approaches

Study found that medical tourism involving travellers to and from the UK is on the increase, with the motivations behind such travel being varied and complex. There are opportunities for savings for the NHS as well as costs, but for patients there are wide-ranging risks and uncertainties with regard to a number of aspects of medical tourism.

Health Services and Delivery Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: January 2014

Addendum to Haematological Cancers: Improving Outcomes (Update)

Different levels of service are needed to manage haematological cancers, depending on the particular cancer in question. Because of the increased complexity of care and changes in the levels of care from those specified in the 2003 NICE cancer service guidance on improving outcomes in haematological cancers, an update was needed.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: May 2016

Machine Learning Methods in Systematic Reviews: Identifying Quality Improvement Intervention Evaluations [Internet]

Electronic searches typically yield far more citations than are relevant, and reviewers spend a substantial amount of time screening titles and abstracts to identify potential studies eligible for inclusion in a review. This is of particular relevance in complex research fields such as quality improvement. We tested a semiautomated literature screening process applied to the title and abstract screening stage of systematic reviews. A machine learning approach may allow literature reviewers to screen only a fraction of a search output and to use a predictive model to learn and then emulate the reviewers’ decisions. Once learned, the model can apply the selection process to an essentially unlimited number of citations.

Research White Papers - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2012

The Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Prophylactic Retinal Interventions to Reduce the Risk of Retinal Detachment and Subsequent Vision Loss in Adults and Children with Stickler Syndrome: A Systematic Review

Stickler syndrome, also known as hereditary progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, is an inherited progressive disorder of the collagen connective tissues. Manifestations include short-sightedness, cataracts, retinal problems leading to retinal detachment and possible blindness. This is principally the case among individuals with type 1 Stickler Syndrome. It is the most commonly identified inherited cause of retinal detachment in childhood. However, there is no consensus regarding best practice and no current guidelines on prophylactic interventions for this population.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2011

Suicide Risk Factors and Risk Assessment Tools: A Systematic Review [Internet]

Suicide is a major public health concern in the United States (US), claiming over 36,000 lives each year and nearly 100 lives each day, and suicide among military and Veteran populations is of particular concern. Veterans returning from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, referred to as Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans, may be particularly at risk, although the limited available data has shown mixed results. Several aspects of military experience may increase the risk of suicide, including mental health and substance abuse. Many risk factors specific to the OEF/OIF population have yet to be thoroughly evaluated and incorporated into clinical management.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: March 2012
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Venous Thromboembolic Diseases: The Management of Venous Thromboembolic Diseases and the Role of Thrombophilia Testing [Internet]

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a condition in which a blood clot (a thrombus) forms in a vein and then dislodges to travel in the blood (an embolus). A venous thrombus most commonly occurs in the deep veins of the legs or pelvis; this is then called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Blood flow through the affected vein can be limited by the clot, and it can cause swelling and pain in the leg. If it dislodges and travels to the lungs, to the pulmonary arteries, it is called a pulmonary embolism (PE), which in some cases may be fatal. VTE as a term includes both DVT and PE. Major risk factors for VTE include a prior history of DVT, age over 60 years, surgery, obesity, prolonged travel, acute medical illness, cancer, immobility, thrombophilia (an abnormal tendency for the blood to clot) and pregnancy.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2012

Crime, fear of crime and mental health: synthesis of theory and systematic reviews of interventions and qualitative evidence

Study found that most environmental interventions are not effective at reducing fear of crime, and that fear of crime may be linked to wellbeing as a dimension of social disadvantage.

Public Health Research - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2014
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Antisocial Behaviour and Conduct Disorders in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management

Antisocial behaviour and conduct disorders are the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent mental health services and have a significant impact on the quality of life of children and young people and their parents and carers. Rates of other mental health problems (including antisocial personality disorder) are considerably increased for adults who had a conduct disorder in childhood. This new NICE guideline seeks to address these problems by offering advice on prevention strategies, as well as a range of psychosocial interventions.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2013

Comparative Effectiveness of Warfarin and Newer Oral Anticoagulants for the Long-Term Prevention and Treatment of Arterial and Venous Thromboembolism [Internet]

The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) System serves a largely older, male population with a high prevalence of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Many veterans with chronic AF have risk profiles for stroke that, according to current clinical guidelines, place them in a risk group where chronic anticoagulation is recommended. Adjusted-dose warfarin has been the preferred approach to chronic anticoagulation in the VHA, and in many VHA settings, specialized therapeutic drug-monitoring services provide high-quality warfarin treatment. However, the advent of newer anticoagulants with the promise of simplified long-term anticoagulation requires reconsideration of current treatment practices. The purpose of this systematic review was to study the comparative effectiveness of warfarin and the newer oral anticoagulants used for the long-term prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thromboembolism. An evaluation of newer oral anticoagulants for VTE prophylaxis in the perioperative period will be the subject of a later report.

Evidence-Based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: April 2012
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The Effectiveness of Interventions to Treat Severe Acute Malnutrition in Young Children: A Systematic Review

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) arises as a consequence of a sudden period of food shortage and is associated with loss of a person's body fat and wasting of their skeletal muscle. Many of those affected are already undernourished and are often susceptible to disease. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable as they require extra nutrition for growth and development, have comparatively limited energy reserves and depend on others. Undernutrition can have drastic and wide-ranging consequences for the child's development and survival in the short and long term. Despite efforts made to treat SAM through different interventions and programmes, it continues to cause unacceptably high levels of mortality and morbidity. Uncertainty remains as to the most effective methods to treat severe acute malnutrition in young children.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2012

The Management of Inadvertent Perioperative Hypothermia in Adults [Internet]

Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common but preventable complication of perioperative procedures, which is associated with poor outcomes for patients. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia should be distinguished from the deliberate induction of hypothermia for medical reasons, which is not covered by this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK).

Version: April 2008

Hepatitis B (Chronic): Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Hepatitis B in Children, Young People and Adults

Chronic hepatitis B describes a spectrum of disease usually characterised by the presence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the blood or serum for longer than 6 months. In some people, chronic hepatitis B is inactive and does not present significant health problems, but others may progress to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The progression of liver disease is associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in the blood. Without antiviral treatment, the 5-year cumulative incidence of cirrhosis ranges from 8 to 20%. People with cirrhosis face a significant risk of decompensated liver disease if they remain untreated. Five-year survival rates among people with untreated decompensated cirrhosis can be as low as 15%. Chronic hepatitis B can be divided into e antigen- (HBeAg) positive or HBeAg-negative disease based on the presence or absence of e antigen. The presence of HBeAg is typically associated with higher rates of viral replication and therefore increased infectivity.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2013
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