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Bibliographic details: Xie XP, Zhu Y, Wang CM.  Assess the potential of ciprofloxacin to induce arthropathy in children: a systematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2006; 6(8): 605-608

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An inflammation of the cutis and subcutis of the external auditory canal is a primary symptom in cases of acute otitis externa. It is usually treated locally, since this type of therapy ensures a high concentration of the drug and interacts at the site of inflammation with no systemic effects. This systematic review compares the efficacy of treatment using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution with other therapeutic options.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Over two billion people worldwide are believed to be latently infected with TB and approximately 10% of these people will develop active TB later in life. The World Health Organization currently only recommend treatment with fluoroquinolones for patients who cannot take standard first‐line drugs. In this review, we examined the effect of including fluoroquinolones in first‐line treatment regimens on people with presumed drug‐sensitive tuberculosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 6, 2013

Meningococcal disease is a contagious bacterial disease caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (N.meningitidis) with high fatality rates: up to 15% for infection of the central nervous system (meningitis) and up to 50% to 60% among patients with blood stream infection and shock; up to 15% of survivors are left with severe neurological deficits. People who have had close contact with someone who has a meningococcal infection and populations with known high carriage rates are offered antibiotics in order to eradicate the bacteria and thus prevent disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 25, 2013

Urinary tract infection (UTI) refers to the presence of a certain threshold number of bacteria in the urine. Bacterial cystitis (bacteria in the bladder, also called acute cystitis) can occur in men and women and the signs and symptoms include dysuria (pain on passing urine), frequency, cloudy urine, occasionally haematuria (blood in the urine), and is often associated with pyuria (high urine white blood cell count). There is an additional important distinction between complicated and uncomplicated UTI. Complicated UTIs are those associated with fever and/or back pain (indicating kidney infection), UTIs in men, UTIs associated with indwelling or intermittent urinary catheters, obstructive uropathy (any changes in the urinary tract due to obstruction), vesicoureteric reflux (urine travels from the bladder back up toward the kidneys) and other urological abnormalities. These types of infections require more intensive treatment. Uncomplicated acute cystitis is the most prevalent form of uncomplicated UTI in women. Quinolones are recommended as the drugs of choice for acute cystitis in regions where the level of resistance to other antimicrobials namely co‐trimoxazole is high. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which quinolone is most effective in treating uncomplicated acute cystitis and to also investigate safety and how well they are tolerated. Eleven studies (7535 women) were identified. No two studies compared the same quinolones. We found no significant differences in clinical or microbiological efficacy between quinolones. Several adverse events were reported in the individual studies. These included photosensitivity, insomnia, skin adverse events, central nervous system adverse events and adverse events leading to withdrawal to treatment. We were unable to determine which quinolone would be the safest or the most tolerated due to the lack of head‐to‐head data.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 19, 2006

Brucellosis is a common infection caused by Brucella bacteria species and can infect both people and animals. It is spread by eating infected food products and through direct contact with infected animals. The bacterial infection can affect different tissues and organs and is treated using antibiotics. Current recommended treatment regimens involve the use of two or more antibiotics in order to avoid relapses occurring and to prevent prolonged use of these drugs, which may lead to problems of drug resistance arising. Drug resistance is a particularly important issue as most people infected with brucellosis live in low socioeconomic areas of developing countries, where tuberculosis is also an endemic health problem. Thus there are concerns over the potential increase in resistance to tuberculosis drugs due to their prolonged use in treating brucellosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 17, 2012

Some patients with ulcerative colitis have their colon and rectum removed with construction of a pouch (made from a loop of small intestine) to serve in place of the rectum. This is known as ileal pouch‐anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery. Pouchitis is inflammation of the surgically constructed pouch. Symptoms of active pouchitis include diarrhea, increased stool frequency, abdominal cramping, fecal urgency, tenesmus (feeling of constantly needing to pass stools), and incontinence. Periods when symptoms stop are called 'remission'.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 23, 2015

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition where the airways often become blocked with mucus. It is associated with chest infections, which can lead to progressive breathing failure and death. A germ called Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often the cause of infection and is difficult to treat successfully, once infection has become established.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 25, 2017

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and toxicity of ciprofloxacin vs an aminoglycoside, both in combination with a beta-lactam, for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in the inpatient setting.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

This review reported that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether twice daily doses of 750mg enteral or 400mg intravenous ciprofloxacin were more effective in adult patients who received enteral feeds. Despite a risk of publication bias and lack of a validity assessment, the findings of the review appear reliable given the very limited evidence.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

The authors concluded that there was strong evidence in favour of the continued use of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and pivmecillinam (as recommended by the World Health Organization) to reduce morbidity and mortality in children with dysentery. The review had some methodological problems, but the authors' conclusions were based on the evidence and appear reasonable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

This review evaluated a potential increased anticoagulant response during concomitant therapy of warfarin and three commonly prescribed fluoroquinolones. Due to inconsistent findings, the authors concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support a potential increased anticoagulant response. The authors' conclusions were appropriate, but should be considered in the context of the review's methodological weaknesses.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

This review compared quinolones with other treatments for nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia. The authors concluded that quinolones may be as effective as comparator antibiotics in terms of clinical cure and mortality, but more effective in achieving microbiological eradication and preventing the development of resistance. This was a well-conducted review and the authors' conclusions are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

This clinical guideline was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. It sets out clear, evidenceand consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010

Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive condition, is the most common fatal genetic disease affecting children and young adults in Canada. It is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, located on chromosome seven. This gene encodes for a chloride channel that regulates transport of salt and water across cell membranes. When CFTR is dysfunctional, secretions become tenacious and sticky, resulting in pathology in multiple organ systems, most notably the lungs and gastrointestinal tract.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015

Alcohol is the most widely used psychotropic drug in the industrialised world; it has been used for thousands of years as a social lubricant and anxiolytic. In the UK, it is estimated that 24% of adult men and 13% of adult women drink in a hazardous or harmful way. Levels of hazardous and harmful drinking are lowest in the central and eastern regions of England (21–24% of men and 10–14% of women). They are highest in the north (26–28% of men, 16–18% of women). Hazardous and harmful drinking are commonly encountered amongst hospital attendees; 12% of emergency department attendances are directly related to alcohol whilst 20% of patients admitted to hospital for illnesses unrelated to alcohol are drinking at potentially hazardous levels. Continued hazardous and harmful drinking can result in dependence and tolerance with the consequence that an abrupt reduction in intake might result in development of a withdrawal syndrome. In addition, persistent drinking at hazardous and harmful levels can also result in damage to almost every organ or system of the body. Alcohol-attributable conditions include liver damage, pancreatitis and the Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Key areas in the investigation and management of these conditions are covered in this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada, with a national estimate of COPD prevalence of approximately 4% in 2011. Patients with COPD can experience exacerbations, or periods of worsening of COPD symptoms such as increased breathlessness, tiredness, fever and change in sputum colour. Bronchiectasis, or dilatation of the airways due to infective causes or cystic fibrosis (CF), had an incidence of 272 per 100 000 in those over 75 years of age in the US as of 2005. The reduced ability to clear secretions from dilated airways eventually leads to airway blockage and loss of lung function.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: June 27, 2017

Carbapenems are beta-lactam antibiotics with a very broad spectrum of activity and act by disrupting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. Others in the family of beta-lactam antibiotics are cephalosporins, which include cefepime and ceftazidime. In contrast, beta-lactamase inhibitors have little antibacterial activity alone. They include tazobactam and clavulanate. When used with beta-lactams however, the combination therapy provides enhanced and extended spectrum of activity against bacteria containing plasmid-mediated and chromosomal beta-lactamases. In the literature, the terminology “combination therapy” varies. For instance, the combination product piperacillin-tazobactam is often referred to as monotherapy unless combined with other agents such as amikacin or tobramycin.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: August 9, 2016

Early-onset neonatal bacterial infection (infection with onset within 72 hours of birth) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in newborn babies. Parent organisations and the scientific literature report that there can be unnecessary delays in recognising and treating sick babies. In addition, concern about the possibility of early-onset neonatal infection is common. This concern is an important influence on the care given to pregnant women and newborn babies. There is wide variation in how the risk of early-onset neonatal infection is managed in healthy babies. The approach taken by the NHS needs to: prioritise the treatment of sick babies, minimise the impact of management pathways on healthy women and babies, use antibiotics wisely to avoid the development of resistance to antibiotics. These drivers have not always been addressed consistently in the NHS, and this guideline was commissioned to ensure they would be addressed in future.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2012

Guidelines are recommendations for the care of individuals in specific clinical conditions or circumstances - and these can include prevention and self-care through to primary and secondary care and on to more specialised services. NICE clinical guidelines are based on the best available evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness, and are produced to help healthcare professionals and patients make informed choices about appropriate healthcare. While guidelines assist the practice of healthcare professionals, they do not replace their knowledge and skills.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: September 2012

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