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Temporary pain in the lower extremities following spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine compared to other local anaesthetics

Lidocaine is the drug of choice for inducing spinal anaesthesia in ambulatory surgery because of its rapid onset of action, intense nerve blockade, and short duration of action. The possible side effects of spinal anaesthesia in adults, which develop after recovery, are backache, post‐dural puncture headache, and transient neurologic symptoms that are characterized by slight to severe pain in the buttocks and legs. TNS symptoms develop within a few hours and up to 24 hours after anaesthesia. They last, in most cases, up to two days. The present review shows that lidocaine is more likely to cause transient neurologic symptoms than bupivacaine, prilocaine, and procaine. However, these drugs produce prolonged local anaesthetic effects and therefore are not desirable for ambulatory patients. It is possible that the reintroduction of 2‐chloroprocaine will solve this lack of a suitable intrathecal local anaesthetic; confirmatory studies are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Local anaesthetic nerve block for pain management in labour

Most women find labour painful, although a few do not. Women who give birth more than once, can find very different levels of pain in their different labours. Women generally seek ways to help themselves cope with the labour, and some women look for additional help to manage the pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

End of Life Care for Infants, Children and Young People with Life-Limiting Conditions: Planning and Management

This guideline covers the physical, emotional, social and spiritual elements of end of life care, and focuses on improving the child or young person’s quality of life and supporting their family and carers. There are, for instance, recommendations on managing distressing symptoms and providing care and bereavement support after death. Recommendations have also been made about how services should be delivered. The guideline is aimed at all providers of paediatric end of life care, whatever their level of practise, and also for children and young people with life-limiting conditions and their parents or carers.

NICE Guideline - National Guideline Alliance (UK).

Version: December 2016
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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