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N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists in levodopa induced dyskinesia: a meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are amongst the most disabling side-effects of levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been suggested that that N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist may reduce peak-dose dyskinesia in PD patients and may lead to motor improvement. In this study, we compared the efficacy of NMDA receptor antagonists versus placebo in the treatment of LID in PD through a meta-analysis of controlled trials.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Pharmacologic prevention of aspiration pneumonia: a systematic review

BACKGROUND: Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Several approaches, including bed positioning, dietary changes, and oral hygiene, have been proposed to prevent aspiration pneumonia, yet few data are available on the efficacy of pharmacologic interventions in reducing the rate of aspiration.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Antivirals for treatment of influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

This review evaluated oseltamivir and zanamivir for treatment of influenza virus A or B and amantadine and rimantadine for influenza A. The authors concluded that oral oseltamivir and inhaled zanamivir may provide benefits over no treatment. Their cautious conclusion of low confidence for decision-making seems to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Parkinson's Disease: National Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Management in Primary and Secondary Care

It is almost 200 years since James Parkinson described the major symptoms of the disease that came to bear his name. Slowly but surely our understanding of the disease has improved and effective treatment has been developed, but Parkinson’s disease remains a huge challenge to those who suffer from it and to those involved in its management. In addition to the difficulties common to other disabling neurological conditions, the management of Parkinson’s disease must take into account the fact that the mainstay of pharmacological treatment, levodopa, can eventually produce dyskinesia and motor fluctuation. Furthermore, there are a number of agents besides levodopa that can help parkinsonian symptoms, and there is the enticing but unconfirmed prospect that other treatments might protect against worsening neurological disability. Thus, a considerable degree of judgement is required in tailoring individual therapy and in timing treatment initiation. It is hoped that this guideline on Parkinson’s disease will be of considerable help to those involved at all levels in these difficult management decisions. The guideline has been produced using standard NICE methodology and is therefore based on a thorough search for best evidence.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).

Version: 2006
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Bipolar Disorder: The Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults, Children and Adolescents, in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of bipolar disorder. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, patients and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with bipolar disorder while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2006
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Physical Interventions to Interrupt or Reduce the Spread of Respiratory Viruses — Resource Use Implications: A Systematic Review [Internet]

This systematic review studies the resource use implications associated with physical interventions used for interrupting or reducing the spread of respiratory viruses, and serves to inform decision-makers when considering these interventions. It complements the updated Cochrane Review, Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses (Jefferson 2011), which shows that physical interventions to interrupt or delay the spread of viruses are effective in protecting against viral transmission. The primary and secondary research questions for this work follow.

CADTH Technology Report - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: December 2011
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Multiple Sclerosis: Management of Multiple Sclerosis in Primary and Secondary Care

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an acquired chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting both the brain and spinal cord. It affects approximately 100,000 people in the UK. It is the commonest cause of serious physical disability in adults of working age.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: October 2014
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Aminoadamantanes versus other antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus is mainly transmitted by contact to infected blood. Chronic hepatitis C infection affects around 3% of the world population and progresses slowly. Most patients present without symptoms, or with symptoms like fatigue or liver‐related morbidity. Frequently, the disease is discovered by coincidence because of abnormal laboratory results. Around 5% to 40% of all infected patients will develop severe liver damage which can cause severe liver‐related morbidities and eventually death. Current treatment consists of pegylated interferon‐alpha plus ribavirin and in some subgroups of patients these agents are combined with telaprevir or boceprevir, or other direct acting antivirals. In about 70% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, it is possible to eradicate the virus from the blood, but the clinical effects are not known. Aminoadamantanes (another group of antiviral drugs), mostly amantadine, have been tested in several clinical trials. The authors have previously systematically reviewed amantadine versus placebo or no intervention and found no significant effects of amantadine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus is mainly transmitted by contact with infected blood. Chronic hepatitis C infection affects around 3% of the world's population and progresses slowly. Most patients present without symptoms, or with symptoms like fatigue or liver‐related morbidity (illness). Frequently, the disease is discovered by coincidence because of abnormal laboratory results. Between 5% and 40% of all infected patients will develop severe liver damage, which can cause severe liver‐related morbidities and eventually death. Current treatment consists of pegylated interferon‐alpha plus ribavirin, and in some groups of patients these two agents are administered in combination with antiviral drugs such as telaprevir or boceprevir. It is then possible to eradicate the virus from the blood in at least 70% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the clinical effects are not known.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Treatments for fatigue in peripheral neuropathy

To assess the effects of treatments for fatigue in people with peripheral neuropathy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Systematic review and economic decision modelling for the prevention and treatment of influenza A and B

This study aimed to establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir for the treatment and prevention of influenza. The preventative strategies considered were amantadine, oseltamivir, zanamivir and vaccine, compared with no intervention. Vaccine was considered both on its own and in combination with amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. The treatment strategies addressed were amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir compared with standard care. Four patient groups were considered: (i) children (aged ≤12 years); (ii) healthy adults (aged 12-65 years); (iii) 'high-risk' (aged ≥65 years and/or with concomitant disease); and (iv) elderly residential population.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2003

Treatment for postpolio syndrome

PPS is a condition that can affect polio survivors years after recovery from an initial paralytic attack by the polio virus. PPS is characterised by progressive or new muscle weakness or decreased muscle endurance in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection and in muscles that were seemingly unaffected. Other symptoms may include generalised fatigue and pain. These symptoms often lead to a decline in physical functioning, for example trouble walking. The objective of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of different drugs and rehabilitation treatments compared to placebo (a pill or procedure without any physiological effect), usual care or no treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Systemic administration of local anesthetic agents to relieve neuropathic pain

Intravenous lidocaine and oral derivatives relieve pain from damage to the nervous system (neuropathic pain). In early reports, intravenous lidocaine and its oral analogs mexiletine and tocainide relieved neuropathic pain, a type of pain caused by disease in the nervous system. However, the evidence was conflicting. The authors reviewed all randomized studies comparing these drugs with placebo or with other analgesics and found that: local anesthetics were superior to placebo in decreasing intensity of neuropathic pain; limited data showed no difference in efficacy or adverse effects between local anesthetics and carbamazepine, amantadine, gabapentin or morphine; local anesthetics had more adverse effects than placebo; and local anesthetics were safe.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza: a systematic review and economic evaluation

The influenza virus causes an acute, febrile, respiratory illness. Outbreaks follow a seasonal pattern, concentrated in winter, and vary in distribution and severity between years. Symptoms include fever, cough, nasal congestion, headache, sore throat, fatigue, and joint and muscle aches. In otherwise healthy people, symptoms are usually self-limiting. However, in vulnerable people, such as the elderly, chronically ill or immunocompromised, the illness may be prolonged and the development of serious complications more common. In England and Wales, influenza is thought to be responsible for over 10,000 deaths from respiratory disease annually.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2009

Autism: Recognition, Referral, Diagnosis and Management of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

Autism is a lifelong condition with particular issues for adults, which are addressed by this NICE guideline. While some people are diagnosed in childhood, a large proportion of adults with autism find obtaining a diagnosis in adulthood difficult or impossible. Under-recognition of autism in adults can lead to inadequate care, masking of coexisting mental and physical health problems, and to social and economic exclusion. This guideline aims to address these widespread problems and increase the uptake of interventions by adults with autism to enable them to live more independent lives.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2012
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care [Internet]

This guideline offers best practice advice on the identification and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It aims to define the symptoms, signs and investigations required to establish a diagnosis of COPD. It also aims to define the factors that are necessary to assess its severity, provide prognostic information and guide best management. It gives guidance on the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of patients with stable COPD, and on the management of exacerbations. The interface with surgery and intensive therapy units (ITU) are also discussed.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2010
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Bronchiolitis: Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis in Children

Clinical guidelines have been defined as ‘systematically developed statements which assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate treatment for specific conditions’. This guideline has been developed with the aim of providing guidance on the care of children with bronchiolitis.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: June 2015
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Rotigotine (Neupro) (Transdermal Patch) [Internet]

The objective of this report was to perform a systematic review of the beneficial and harmful effects of rotigotine for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD).

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: November 2016
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Type 1 Diabetes in Adults: Diagnosis and Management

Type 1 diabetes affects over 370,000 adults in the UK, representing approximately 10% of adults diagnosed with diabetes. Given the complexity of its treatment regimens, successful outcomes depend, perhaps more than with any other long-term condition, on full engagement of the adult with type 1 diabetes in life-long day-by-day self-management. In order to support this, the health service needs to provide informed, expert support, education and training as well as a range of other more conventional biomedical services and interventionsfor the prevention and management of long term complications and disability.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2015
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Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection [Internet]

This report focuses on whether it is useful to order a hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody test in either the general population of asymptomatic adults or selected high-risk subpopulations who have no history of liver disease or known liver function test abnormalities.

Systematic Evidence Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2004
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