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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the joints (commonly knees, hips, hands). When joints lose cartilage, bone grows to try to repair the damage. Instead of making things better, however, the bone grows abnormally and makes things worse. For example, the bone can become misshapen and make the joint painful and limit movement. OA can affect your physical function, particularly your ability to use your joints.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

There is no evidence that dietary supplements can prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD). But some combinations of vitamins and minerals may help delay the development of late-stage AMD.Dietary supplements contain nutrients that also occur naturally in our food, such as vitamins and minerals, but in a concentrated form and often at a higher dose. They may contain herbal substances like St. John's wort (hypericum) or garlic, or animal products such as fish oil. Dietary supplements are available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, powder or liquids. They do not require a prescription and are also available outside of pharmacies.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 29, 2015

Antioxidant dietary supplements do not help prevent cancer and other life-threatening conditions. Excessive doses of the antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E and beta-carotene can even increase the risk of dying sooner.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 10, 2017

Dietary supplements containing beta-carotene, vitamin C or vitamin E can neither prevent age-related cataracts nor slow the progression of the condition.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 21, 2016

“Vitamins strengthen our immune system,” and “Omega 3 is good for your heart”: Dietary supplements are often marketed using a number of different promises, and they are available everywhere, from pharmacies and supermarkets to the internet. But do we really need all of these tablets, powders and capsules? What makes dietary supplements different from medicine and can they also be harmful?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 8, 2016

It is normal for vision to gradually worsen with age. Some people also have medical conditions that further affect their vision. One possible cause of worsening vision is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Central vision loss makes objects appear blurry and distorted when you look at them directly. This is the type of vision we need to read, drive a car or recognize faces.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 29, 2015

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether taking antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements slows down the progression of AMD and prevents visual loss. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found 19 studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor in the prostate, a gland that is part of the male internal reproductive system. The prostate is a gland about the size of a chestnut, and is located between the bladder and the pelvic floor muscles.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 28, 2013

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of treatments to prevent or reduce damage to nerves from the anticancer (chemotherapy) drug cisplatin or other platinum‐containing drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

No evidence that folic acid, thiamine, vitamin D or vitamin E improve seizure control or prevent side effects for people with epilepsy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether taking antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements prevents the development of AMD. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found five studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

There is no cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease, which is a progressively disabling and ultimately fatal disease. Antioxidants, including vitamins C, E, selegiline, selenium, methionineacetylcysteine, and coenzyme Q10, have been suggested as possible treatments and some of these are commonly advised by physicians treating people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this updated review, we identified 10 studies involving a total of 1015 participants. We did not find any well‐designed randomized controlled trial evidence to support the use of these medications. Trials of antioxidants identified in this review were generally of poor methodological quality and lacked statistical power. However, antioxidants are generally well tolerated without serious adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Our body cannot synthesize all compounds that are essential for health. Therefore such compounds must be taken through diet. Oxidative stress may cause cell damage that is implicated in chronic diseases like cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers are among the most common cancers worldwide. The poor prognosis of patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancers made primary prevention a potentially attractive approach. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in decreasing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

A cramp is a sudden, involuntary painful contraction of a muscle. Many people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), experience cramps during the course of the disease. These range from mild cramps that do not affect daily activities and sleep, through to very severe, painful cramps. Some medications that are used to treat cramps in people with no medical condition or with conditions other than ALS have been tested in ALS clinical trials. These medicines include vitamin E, creatine, quinidine, and gabapentin. Other medications such as quinine sulfate, magnesium, lioresal, dantrolene, clonazepam, diphenylhydantoin, and gabapentin have been used to treat cramps in people with ALS but their effectiveness is unknown. In 2006 and 2010 the US Food and Drugs Administration issued warnings concerning the use of quinine sulfate, which was the previously most widely prescribed medication for cramps in the US. This review sought to find out how effective medications and physical treatments for cramps are for people with ALS. The reviewers identified 20 randomised controlled trials in people with ALS comprising a total of 4789 participants. Only one trial, of the drug tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), directly investigated the effectiveness of an intervention for cramps. Thirteen randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps secondarily among other variables. The medications comprised vitamin E, baclofen, riluzole, L‐threonine, xaliproden, indinavir, and memantine. Six randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps as adverse events. The medications comprised creatine, gabapentin, dextromethorphan, quinidine and lithium. None of the 20 studies could demonstrate any benefit, but the studies were small. Current evidence on the treatment of cramps in ALS is lacking and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of nutrition and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 31, 2017

Elective liver surgery undertaken for a variety of reasons may require occlusion of the blood supply to the liver in order to reduce bleeding from the cut liver surface. This temporary blood supply interruption can cause liver damage for a variety of reasons. In experimental studies many drugs have shown some promise in decreasing liver damage caused by the occluded blood supply. We identified a total of 15 randomised trials evaluating 11 different pharmacological interventions (methylprednisolone, multivitamin antioxidant infusion, vitamin E infusion, amrinone, prostaglandin E1, pentoxifylline, mannitol, trimetazidine, dextrose, allopurinol, and OKY 046). All trials had risk of bias ('systematic errors') and risk of play of chance ('random errors'). There was no significant difference between the groups in mortality, liver failure, or post‐operative complications. The trimetazidine group had a significantly shorter hospital stay, and the vitamin E group had a significantly shorter intensive therapy unit stay than the respective controls. There was no significant difference in any of the clinically relevant outcomes in the remaining comparisons. Methylprednisolone improved the enzyme markers of liver function and trimetazidine, methylprednisolone, and dextrose reduced the enzyme markers of liver injury compared to controls. However, there is a high risk of type I (erroneously concluding that an intervention is beneficial when it is actually not beneficial) and type II errors (erroneously concluding that an intervention is not beneficial when it is actually beneficial) because of the few trials included, the small sample size in each trial, and the risks of bias. Three pharmacological drugs ‐ trimetazidine, methylprednisolone, and dextrose ‐ have potential for a protective role against liver injury in elective liver surgery involving blood supply occlusion. However, based on the current evidence it is recommended that the use of these agents should be restricted to well‐designed trials in patients undergoing resection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 8, 2016

Having a low intake of vitamin C could be associated with complications in pregnancy such as high blood pressure with swelling of the hands, feet and face (pre‐eclampsia), anaemia and having a small baby.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Intermittent claudication is a cramping leg pain that develops when walking and is relieved with rest. It is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles because of atherosclerosis (fatty deposits restricting blood flow through the arteries). People with mild‐to‐moderate claudication are advised to keep walking, stop smoking and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Other treatments include antiplatelet therapy, pentoxifylline or cilostazol, angioplasty (inserting a balloon into the artery to open it up) and bypass surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Huntington´s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease for which no cure is currently available. We proposed to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at modifying disease progression and evaluate the methodological quality of the corresponding clinical trials. We selected eight trials comprising a total of 1366 participants. The results show that no intervention demonstrated an effect in modifying disease progression in HD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

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