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LADA is a condition that at diagnosis looks like type 2 diabetes (non‐insulin requiring diabetes mellitus) but actually is a type 1 diabetes, where the patient will become insulin requiring. In the UK approximately 3.6% of people who look like they have type 2 diabetes actually have type 1 diabetes, while other studies suggest the prevalence is higher and treatment for these patients may need to be different from that used in type 2 diabetes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 7, 2011

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of nutrition and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 31, 2017

Cochrane researchers conducted a review of the effects of nutritional supplements for people being treated for tuberculosis. After searching for relevant studies up to 4 February 2016, they included 35 relevant studies with 8283 participants. Their findings are summarized below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Steroids (glucocorticosteroids) are widely used to treat inflammation. Bone loss (osteoporosis) and spinal fractures are serious side effects of this therapy. Bisphosphonates are considered a first‐line treatment for osteoporosis and have been used since the 1990s.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

General information about cancer prevention and descriptions of the concepts used in cancer-specific prevention summaries.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 11, 2017

The kidneys are our body’s sewage treatment plants: They produce urine, which makes it possible to get rid of waste products that arise in the body or that we consume in food and drinks. These waste products include ammonia and urea, or medicine, drugs and toxins.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 7, 2015

Postnatal depression is a common condition that affects women and may impact on their babies. Common symptoms of postnatal depression include fluctuations in mood, mood changes, suicidal ideation and preoccupation with infant well‐being ranging from over‐concern to frank delusions. There is currently not much evidence regarding interventions that might prevent or treat postnatal depression. A diet lacking in certain vitamins, minerals or other nutrients may cause postnatal depression in some women. Correcting this deficiency with dietary supplements might therefore prevent postnatal depression. Examples of possible dietary supplements aimed at preventing postnatal depression include omega‐3 fatty acids, iron, folate, s‐adenosyl‐L‐methionine, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), B6 (pyridoxine), B2 (riboflavin), vitamin D and calcium.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Expert-reviewed information summary that contains information on integrative, complementary, and/or alternative therapies for people with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 9, 2017

Current clinical care for people who have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) focuses on controlling future risks for need for dialysis and symptom management, mainly pain and bleeding. Newly discovered molecules that may slow kidney cyst growth has recently switched attention from care and treatment toward preventing disease progression and symptom control.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Evidence from randomised controlled trials shows that calcium supplements help prevent pre‐eclampsia and preterm birth and lower the risk of a woman dying or having serious problems related to high blood pressure in pregnancy. This is particularly for women on low calcium diets.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Hip fracture occurs mainly in older people, many of whom are frail. After surgery for their hip fracture, most patients suffer a loss of muscle mass and strength. Despite rehabilitation, most patients experience a long‐term decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. This review considers the evidence for the use of anabolic steroids aimed at improving outcomes after hip fracture in older people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Idiopathic hypercalciuria is an inherited metabolic abnormality characterised by excessive amounts of calcium excreted into the urine in patients with normal serum levels of calcium. The main complications of this disease in adults are the formation of kidney stones and bone loss. In children, hypercalciuria can cause recurrent haematuria (blood in the urine), frequency‐dysuria syndrome (frequent painful or difficult urination), urinary tract infection and abdominal and back pain. The aim of this review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of drug treatments for preventing the complications of idiopathic hypercalciuria. We identified four studies comparing thiazides (diuretics) with either standard treatment of clinical follow‐up and increased water intake or specific dietary recommendations and one study comparing thiazides plus a potassium salt. There was a decrease in the number of new stones in the group receiving thiazides as well as an increase in the time taken for new stone formation. The addition of potassium salts to thiazide treatment significantly reduced the amount of calcium excreted in the urine. No studies in children were identified and there were no studies investigating the use of drug treatment for those with hypercalciuria but were symptom free.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The skin is one of our body’s heaviest and largest organs. Depending on body size and shape, it weighs between 3.5 and 10 kilograms (7.5 and 22 pounds) and is 1.5 to 2 square meters big.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 28, 2016

Because available conventional treatments are only partially effective and may produce side effects, most patients with MS use therapies proposed by complementary and alternative medicine, usually special diets and dietary supplements. In fact, an Internet search using the terms 'diet' and 'multiple sclerosis' produces over 27 million links, indicating that these treatments are widely used and believed in by the MS patient community. The most common dietary interventions are supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), allergen‐free (gluten and milk) diets, vitamins, and micronutrients and antioxidants such as selenium, Gingko biloba extracts and coenzyme Q10.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Abnormal calcium and phosphorous levels in the blood and tissues occur in chronic kidney disease. These changes are linked to shorter survival and hardening of the arteries leading to heart disease. Standard therapy for abnormal calcium and other mineral levels includes dietary restrictions, phosphorous binders and vitamin D compounds. A newer treatment called cinacalcet showed promise for improving abnormal mineral levels but the effects of this drug on patient outcomes (the way patients feel function and survive) were unclear from early studies. We have updated an earlier review dated 2006 to include studies that assessed the effects of cinacalcet in about 7500 people with chronic kidney disease. While cinacalcet improves some blood abnormalities, it does not improve risk of death or heart disease in people treated with dialysis. In addition, people who take cinacalcet may experience increased nausea, vomiting and the need for blood tests to check blood calcium levels. The current research is high‐quality and means that additional new studies are unlikely to change our confidence in these results. Information for the use of cinacalcet in people with milder forms of kidney disease and those with a kidney transplant is insufficient to guide decision making.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 21, 2017

Several factors increase the likelihood of developing non-melanoma skin cancer. The main one that you can influence is sun exposure. Sunlight contains ultraviolet rays, which can damage your skin and cause cancer.A lot of factors influence your risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer. For instance, the risk increases with age.Other than that, it will mainly depend on:where you live,how much you expose your skin to sunlight,whether or not you use tanning beds, andyour skin type.Sunlight is the risk factor that you have the most influence on yourself. The ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight is mostly made up of UV-A rays. These rays go deep into your skin and give you a fast tan. But this kind of tan doesn’t last very long, and doesn’t offer much protection from further sun exposure. UV-A light damages your skin, causing it to age prematurely. Tanning beds also have UV-A rays in the light they use.The UV-B rays found in sunlight mainly enter the uppermost layer of skin. Your skin tans more slowly as a result, and the tan lasts longer and your skin builds up a certain amount of protection from further sunlight exposure. But UV-B rays also irritate skin and make it turn red, and may cause sunburn. It is thought that UV-B rays are more likely to cause skin cancer than UV-A rays are.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 10, 2015

There are a number of factors that can increase your risk of developing melanoma. The main one that you can influence is sun exposure. Sunlight contains ultraviolet rays, which can damage the skin and cause cancer.Many different factors can influence your risk of developing melanoma over the course of your lifetime. For instance, the risk increases with age and is also higher if one of your close relatives (a parent or brother or sister) had or has skin cancer.Other important risk factors are:Sun exposureTanning bed useSkin typeNumber of molesSun exposure is the biggest risk factor that you can do something about. The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) light is mostly made up of UV-A rays. These penetrate deep into your skin and give you a fast tan. But this kind of tan doesn’t last very long, and doesn’t offer much protection from further sun exposure. UV-A light damages your skin and causes it to age prematurely. Tanning beds also use UV-A rays.The sun’s UV-B rays affect the uppermost layer of your skin the most. There they cause a delayed but longer-lasting tan and help the skin to develop some protection from more sunlight. But they also irritate your skin and cause it to redden, and can cause sunburn. UV-B rays are believed to be more likely to cause skin cancer than UV-A rays.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 10, 2015

People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop impaired excretion of the dietary phosphorus. This results in a condition known as mineral and bone disorder in chronic kidney disease (CKD‐MBD). CKD‐MBD is characterized by high bone turnover, increased musculoskeletal morbidity including bone pain and muscle weakness, and vascular calcification which may contribute to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease and associated deaths. Several agents such as phosphate binders, vitamin D compounds, and calcimimetics are widely used to slow the development and progression of CKD‐MBD complications.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Do supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women (standard treatment includes less than 1 mg of folic acid).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

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