Home > Search Results

Results: 7

Antiviral agents for treatment of herpes simplex virus infection in neonates

The virus herpes simplex (herpes) causes a rare but devastating disease in the newborn that can range from skin and eye infection to shock, organ failure, brain infection, and death. Newborn herpes infection is an uncommon complication of active genital herpes in the mother around the time of delivery or after direct contact with a herpes blister ("fever blister", "cold sore") of an infected caregiver. We reviewed five studies conducted to assess the effects of antiviral agents (medications that reduce the spread of virus in the body) on mortality and long‐term complications of herpes disease in the newborn. Antiviral agents were shown to reduce mortality from the condition, but the reduction was not statistically significant due to the small number of infants in the study. There was insufficient trial data to guide caregivers regarding the duration of antiviral therapy or dose.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The role of the monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab for treatment of people with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a cancer and accounts for 25% of all leukaemias. The disease is the most common cancer of the lymphatic system in Western countries and is characterised by a highly variable clinical course and prognosis. Some patients may have minimal or no symptoms for many years with a normal life expectancy, without requiring treatment. Others are symptomatic at diagnosis or early thereafter and can experience infectious and autoimmune complications, leading to a reduced lifespan. Standard treatment includes chemotherapy with one or more agents. Nowadays monoclonal antibodies are added, especially alemtuzumab and rituximab. However, the impact of these agents remains unclear, as there were hints for increased overall survival, but also risk for severe infections in non‐randomised trials. In this systematic review we summarised and analysed the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab in the treatment of CLL. We searched several important medical databases such as CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE and found five RCTs fulfilling our pre‐defined inclusion criteria. We included trials that compared alemtuzumab with no further therapy or with anti‐cancer therapy in newly‐diagnosed or relapsed patients with CLL. In total, 845 patients were treated within the five trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Alkylating agents for Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia

Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is an uncommon B‐cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterised by bone marrow infiltration and production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. It is a kind of non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma which can lead to death. Alkylating agents are believed to be effective in treatment of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia for alleviating symptoms and elongating survival time. The review authors found one randomised controlled trial with 92 participants that considered fludarabine was superior to the alkylating agents‐containing regimen for pretreated/relapsed patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Purine Antagonists for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

Despite increasing insight into its tumour biology B‐CLL remains an incurable disease. So far, chemotherapy with alkylating agents such as chlorambucil has been the mainstay of treatment in B‐CLL. However, purine antagonists such as fludarabine are increasingly being used, as it has been suggested that these novel drugs are more effective. This review confirms the greater response rates achievable by using purine antagonists but at the cost of greater toxicity, mainly infections. There is inconclusive evidence whether treatment with purine antagonists improves survival. None of the studies included quality of life data. More research is needed to fully explore the role of purine antagonists in the treatment of B‐CLL and their potential impact on survival.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

The role of the monoclonal anti‐CD20 antibodies for treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignant disease and accounts for 25% of all leukaemias. The disease is the most common lymphoid malignancy in western countries, and is characterised by a highly variable clinical course and prognosis. Some patients may have minimal or no symptoms for many years with a normal life expectancy, without requiring treatment. Other people are symptomatic at diagnosis or soon thereafter and can experience infectious and autoimmune complications, leading to a reduced lifespan. Standard treatment includes chemotherapy with one or more agents. Presently monoclonal antibodies are added, especially alemtuzumab and rituximab. However, the impact of these agents remains unclear, as there have been hints for increased overall survival, but also for an increased risk of severe infections in non‐randomised trials. In this systematic review we summarised and analysed the evidence from randomised controlled trials on efficacy and safety of monoclonal anti‐CD20 antibodies (such as rituximab and ofatumumab) in the treatment of CLL. We searched medical databases, such as EMBASE, MEDLINE and CENTRAL, and found seven randomised controlled trials fulfilling our inclusion criteria. Included trials compared anti‐CD20 antibodies, particularly rituximab, to no further therapy or compared to anti‐cancer therapy in CLL, irrespective of whether the patients were newly diagnosed or relapsed patients. Only five of the seven identified trials could be included in one of the two performed meta‐analyses.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antiviral medicines, interferon, and corneal surface removal in the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection of the eye

We compared different treatments of people's eyes infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes significant mortality, morbidity, and economic burden worldwide. Although the current approved therapies are effective, response to treatment is not satisfactory. Patients are at high risk of developing viral resistance, and serious adverse events occur. The objective of this review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of phyllanthus species for patients with chronic HBV infection. Phyllanthus species appear to be safe and may potentially have effects on the clearance of viral markers in patients with HBV infection. However, all of the trials evaluated in this review were of low methodology quality, ie, have high risk of bias, and there was a risk of random errors in the majority of comparisons. Furthermore, all analyses showed substantial heterogeneity. Accordingly, randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias and large sample size should be conducted to confirm the effects of phyllanthus species before clinical use is considered.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (52)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...