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Ropinirole for levodopa‐induced complications in Parkinson's disease

In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, side effects occur because of the use of levodopa treatment. These consist of involuntary writhing movements (dyskinesia), painful cramps in the legs (dystonia) and a shortened response to each dose referred to as 'end‐of‐dose deterioration' or the 'wearing‐off effect'. Dopamine agonist drugs act by mimicking levodopa in the brain, but they do not cause these long‐term treatment complications. For this reason, dopamine agonists have for some years been added once these problems develop in the hope of improving them. Ropinirole is a new dopamine agonist recently licensed in the UK for the treatment of early and later Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will examine the trials performed with this drug to see how effective it is and what side effects it causes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Ropinirole versus bromocriptine for levodopa‐induced complications in Parkinson's disease

In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, side effects occur because of the use of levodopa treatment. These consist of involuntary writhing movements (dyskinesia), painful cramps in the legs (dystonia) and a shortened response to each dose referred to as 'end‐of‐dose deterioration' or the 'wearing‐off effect'. Dopamine agonist drugs act by mimicking dopamine in the brain, but they do not cause these long‐term treatment complications. For this reason, dopamine agonists have for some years been added once these problems develop in the hope of improving them. Ropinirole is a new dopamine agonist recently licensed in the UK for the treatment of early and later Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will examine the trials performed with this drug to see how it compares with one of the older agonists bromocriptine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Options for Treating Restless Legs Syndrome: A Review of the Research for Adults

This summary will cover: What RLS is Treatment options for RLS What researchers have found about RLS treatments

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 30, 2013

Interventions for treating restless legs syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease

People with restless legs syndrome (RLS) have an irresistible urge to move their limbs to relieve themselves of unpleasant sensations. RLS is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, however the cause is unknown. Patients with RLS often have reduced quality of life and increased risk of developing heart disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Dopamine agonists for restless legs syndrome

We could include 38 trials in the meta‐analyses which investigated the efficacy and safety of dopamine agonist treatment compared to placebo or to other treatments for RLS. The studies were performed mostly in European and Northern American countries. Treatment durations varied from one week to seven months, but most treatments had durations of one to 12 weeks. Patients suffered from moderate to severe RLS and were treated with the dopamine agonists cabergoline, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, and sumanirole.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors compared with other treatments in early Parkinson's

Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease are due to the loss of certain groups of nerves in the brain, which results in the lack of a chemical called dopamine. Currently, there are several different treatments available for people with newly diagnosed Parkinson's including levodopa (Sinemet or Madopar) which is converted into dopamine in the brain, dopamine agonists (for example, ropinirole and pramipexole) which mimic the action of dopamine, and monoamine oxidase B (MAO‐B) inhibitors (selegiline or rasagiline) which reduce the breakdown of dopamine in the brain. Each of these types of drugs has theoretical advantages and disadvantages. For example, although a very good treatment, levodopa can cause involuntary movements (dyskinesia), painful cramps (dystonia) and a shortened response to each dose (motor fluctuations) after a while, whilst MAO‐B inhibitors and dopamine agonists may reduce the risk of these complications but are not so good at improving the symptoms of Parkinson's. At present, therefore, it is not clear which of these three groups of drugs should be prescribed when people with early Parkinson's first need treatment. We reviewed the trials that compared giving MAO‐B inhibitors with other types of medication in people with early Parkinson's to see if there was good evidence that MAO‐B inhibitors were the best treatment to offer. However, unfortunately we only identified two trials (593 patients) so there was only limited evidence. The results showed that MAO‐B inhibitors were less good at improving the symptoms of Parkinson's than either levodopa or dopamine agonists but that they may reduce motor fluctuations compared with levodopa, though not compared with dopamine agonists. MAO‐B inhibitors did, however, have fewer major side effects than some dopamine agonists.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

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