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Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease whereby a malignant tumour develops in the womb after a normal or molar pregnancy (where tissue develops in the womb instead of a baby). Women with GTN are classified as having low‐ or high‐risk GTN using a specific scoring system. Virtually all women with low‐risk GTN are cured by treatment with chemotherapy (anti‐cancer drugs) after undergoing dilatation and curettage (D&C) of the womb. Methotrexate and actinomycin D are the two most commonly used drugs for first‐line treatment of low‐risk GTN, although methotrexate has been favoured in Europe and North America. Sometimes the first‐line treatment fails to cure the disease or has side‐effects that require it be discontinued, and a secondary treatment has to be used. If methotrexate is the first drug used, actinomycin D is usually the secondary treatment, and vice versa. We undertook this review as it was not clear which drug, if any, was more likely to cure low‐risk disease in the first instance. Furthermore, it was not clear which, if any, caused more side‐effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

‐ Leflunomide probably improves pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

SmalI cell lung cancer accounts for nearly a quarter of all new cases of lung cancer. This cancer is often diagnosed in an advanced stage, which means that it has spread to the brain, liver, bone or bone marrow, and most patients die in the first year after diagnosis. This review found that first‐line chemotherapy (anticancer drugs) may prolong the survival of patients with advanced small cell lung cancer for some months when compared to supportive care, although the effect of this treatment on quality of life is unknown. The benefit of a new treatment (second‐line chemotherapy) when the disease has progressed or relapsed was even smaller, and the potential survival gain of some weeks must be balanced against its possible secondary effects. Since the available studies were scarce and of variable quality, more clinical trials are needed to assess and better inform patients about the real effectiveness of chemotherapy in advanced small cell lung cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease with a prevalence in 2% to 3% of the population, according to European studies. Involvement of the nails occurs in about 50%. Nail psoriasis is difficult to treat, but may respond to some treatments. We aimed to review the efficacy and safety of the treatments used for nail psoriasis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

A molar pregnancy (hydatidiform mole) develops following an abnormal process of conception, whereby placental tissue overgrows inside the womb (uterus). Molar pregnancies are classified as complete (CM) or partial (PM) based on their appearance (gross and microscopic), and their chromosome pattern. When present, moles are usually suspected at the early pregnancy scan and women often present with bleeding, similar to a miscarriage. The molar tissue is removed by evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC), also known as dilatation and curettage (D&C) and women generally make a full recovery. However, some women go on to develop a cancer in the womb (about 1 in every 5 women with a CM and 1 in 200 with a PM). Women are generally at a higher risk of getting this cancer, which is known as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), if they are over 40 years old, have a large increase in the size of the womb, have large cysts in the ovaries or have high initial levels of β‐human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (the pregnancy hormone) in their blood. Although treatment of the cancer with chemotherapy (anti‐cancer drugs) is almost always effective, it has been suggested that routinely giving women anti‐cancer drugs (P‐Chem) before or after the removal the molar tissue may reduce the risk of the cancerous tissue developing.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

It has been estimated that arthritis occurs in 5‐7 % of those with psoriasis, which can cause substantial disability in some patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Infliximab in combination with methotrexate is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis( RA).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

There are several different surgical techniques for abortion during the first three months. Several drugs can also be prescribed alone or in combination to terminate early pregnancy. This is called medical abortion, and uses the hormones prostaglandins and/or mifepristone (an antiprogesterone often called RU486), and/or methotrexate. This review of trials found that medical methods for abortion in early pregnancy can be safe and effective, with the most evidence of effectiveness for a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (a prostaglandin). Almost all of the trials were done in well‐resourced settings where women returned for a check‐up.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

When bladder cancer has spread beyond the bladder and is unresectable or metastatic, the possibility of cure is severely diminished. Treatment at this stage of the disease aims to reduce the disease‐related symptoms and to improve quality of life. Chemotherapy is the main treatment offered to patients with this condition and one drug that has recently shown activity is gemcitabine. This review aimed to determine the effectiveness and toxicity of gemcitabine by looking at the evidence published from randomised clinical trials. Patients receiving gemcitabine combined with cisplatin had a similar overall survival but less toxicity when compared to the well‐established chemotherapeutic treatment of MVAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatin). This suggests that gemcitabine plus cisplatin may be considered an alternative chemotherapy schedule to MVAC for advanced bladder cancer but the evidence is limited to one trial only. For patients who have poor kidney function or poor performance status the combination of gemcitabine plus carboplatin may be considered.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Approximately 1% of fertilized eggs implant outside the uterine cavity and develop into extra uterine pregnancies known as ectopic pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancies can occur anywhere along the reproductive tract with the most common site being the fallopian tube.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

This summary of a Cochrane Review presents what we know from research about the effect of tocilizumab for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

GTN is a cancer that most often arises after a molar pregnancy but can arise after any type of pregnancy. Molar pregnancies occur due to abnormal growth of placental tissue that is usually benign and treated by evacuation of the womb (D&C). However, in less than 10% of molar pregnancies in the UK, the growth remains after D&C and transforms into a cancer (GTN) that needs treatment with anti‐cancer drugs (chemotherapy). GTN can be low‐risk or high‐risk. Anti‐cancer drugs are very effective, especially in low‐risk GTN, which is usually cured with single‐drug treatment. However, high‐risk GTN needs to be treated with combinations of anti‐cancer drugs for the best effect. These drugs can produce toxic side effects that are more likely to occur when used in combination with each other. The most commonly administered drug combination is abbreviated as EMA/CO, which stands for Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide and Oncovin® (vincristine), but several other combinations are also in use.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of biologics on rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Primary biliary cirrhosis is a rare, chronic liver disease of unknown etiology. Colchicine, a plant alkaloid, has been used to treat patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and was tested in randomised clinical trials. When all identified trials were combined, colchicine appeared to be not significantly different from placebo/no intervention in respect to mortality, mortality and/or patients who underwent liver transplantation, liver complications, liver biochemistry, liver histology, and the occurrences of adverse events. Colchicine may reduce pruritus, but this finding may be due to bias. The addition of ursodeoxycholic acid did not significantly influence the effect of colchicine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system. There are two general types: Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma is the most common AIDS‐defining malignancy in HIV‐infected patients. The most frequent clinical presentations of NHL during AIDS are systemic illness with the compromise of the primary central nervous system and with primary effusion. In people with HIV infection, most lymphomas have originated in an aggressive B‐cell precursor and have a high‐to‐intermediate histology grade. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of different interventions for treating AIDS‐associated NHL found unclear evidence for efficacy and safety.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

To answer this question, scientists analyzed six high quality studies. The studies tested over 2300 people who had rheumatoid arthritis for more than 10 years. People had either injections of adalimumab or fake injections. Some studies also tested people taking methotrexate in combination with adalimumab or the fake injections. This Cochrane Review provides the best evidence we have today.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of cancer that occurs in the brain or spinal cord. It is a rare and aggressive type of lymphoma. People who develop PCNSL survive for only four months on average, if they do not receive treatment. For a long time the only treatment showing any benefit was whole brain radiotherapy (WBR), in which X‐rays are used to destroy cancerous cells in the brain. However, several studies suggest that this treatment method also produces signs of damage to healthy brain tissue. Since the introduction of methotrexate, a powerful chemotherapy drug showing great beneficial effects, experts have debated the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of people with PCNSL. Radiotherapy could be combined with chemotherapy, or not used at all, especially considering its potentially harmful effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review of the effect of etanercept (Enbrel) for people with rheumatoid arthritis. After searching for all relevant studies, they found nine studies with over 2800 people.  Their findings are summarised below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

We reviewed the evidence for giving people with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) treatment that regulates the immune system other than corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and plasma exchange.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 8, 2017

Psoriasis is a long‐term inflammatory skin condition that can markedly reduce the quality of life of affected individuals. Treatments taken by mouth (oral treatments), such as methotrexate, ciclosporin, and acitretin, are commonly prescribed to people with moderate to severe psoriasis. Oral fumaric acid esters (FAE) are licensed for the treatment of psoriasis in Germany but remain unlicensed in most other countries. This means that there are different treatment options offered to people in different countries.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

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