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This review found that few people with 2 to 14 tension‐type headaches a month get good pain relief from taking ketoprofen 25 mg. There are questions about how studies of this type of headache are conducted. These questions involve the type of people chosen for the studies and the types of outcomes reported. This limits the usefulness of the results, especially for people who just have an occasional headache.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

This review found that most people with moderate or severe pain after an operation get good pain relief from taking ketoprofen 50 mg or dexketoprofen 25 mg.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Frequent episodic tension‐type headache (TTH) means having between one and 14 headaches per month. The condition causes much disability, and stops people concentrating and working properly. When headaches occur the pain usually goes away over time.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Topical diclofenac and topical ketoprofen can provide good levels of pain relief in osteoarthritis, but only for about 10% more people than get this result with topical placebo. There is no evidence for other chronic painful conditions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

How do NSAIDs compare in reducing pain?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: May 1, 2011

Diclofenac Emulgel, ketoprofen gel, piroxicam gel, and diclofenac plaster work reasonably well for strains and sprains. For hand and knee osteoarthritis, the nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) topical diclofenac and topical ketoprofen rubbed on the skin for at least 6 to 12 weeks help reduce pain by at least half in a modest number of people. For postherpetic neuralgia (pain following shingles), topical high‐concentration capsaicin (derived from chili peppers) can reduce pain by at least half in a small number of people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Acute musculoskeletal pain describes conditions like a sprained ankle or a muscle pull. These usually get better over two or three weeks without treatment, but can be very painful while they last.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

We are uncertain as to whether NSAIDs can provide pain relief for chronic non‐cancer pain in children or adolescents.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 2, 2017

Tablets are convenient and easy to take to ease the pain after caesarean section, which involves cutting through the abdomen and uterus to deliver the baby. We aimed to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost‐effectiveness of different types of tablets for the pain. Different types of pain tablets relieve the pain in different ways. Opioids decrease the feeling of pain, decrease reaction to pain as well as increase pain tolerance by their action on the nervous system. Some non‐opioid pain tablets act on the tissues to reduce the response to the inflammatory substances released at the site of tissue damage. Combination drugs (such as paracetamol and codeine) may have more pronounced effects because of the different mechanism of action of their components. We do not know how some other tablets, such as alpha‐2 agonists (clonidine) and gabapentin (usually used for nerve pain that follows shingles and long‐term pain) relieve pain. Good pain control may shorten the time spent in hospital after caesarean section, improve satisfaction and reduce healthcare costs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to try and relieve pain after surgery. However, there have been concerns about the possible harmful effects of these drugs on the kidneys. The review of trials found that NSAIDs can cause small, temporary negative effects on the kidneys in adults, but no one in the trials experienced renal failure or serious kidney problems. These results may not apply to children or adults with decreased kidney function

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Inflammation may play an important role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. There is also some evidence from community surveys that people receiving anti‐inflammatory drugs for various medical conditions may be less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria for this review and none of the exclusion criteria. Aspirin, steroid and non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (traditional and the selective cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) inhibitors) showed no significant benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the use of these drugs cannot be recommended for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.         

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Dipyrone (metamizole) at a single oral dose of 500 mg produces acceptable pain relief in about 7 out of 10 people with moderate or severe acute pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

This review found that few people with two to 14 tension‐type headaches a month get good pain relief from taking paracetamol 1000 mg. There are questions about how studies of this type of headache are conducted. These questions involve the type of people chosen for the studies, and the types of outcomes reported. This limits the usefulness of the results, especially for people who just have an occasional headache.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about pain as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of cancer-associated pain are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 31, 2017

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