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Cyclophosphamide compared to ifosfamide for the treatment of sarcoma in children and young adults

Sarcomas are tumours that arise from bone and soft tissues. They can occur in all ages. As a result of the introduction of polychemotherapy, the survival of children and young adults with different types of sarcoma has improved dramatically. Alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, have played a major role in this improvement. However, in the literature there is still no consensus as to which chemotherapeutic agent is more effective. A well‐informed decision on the use of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in the treatment of children and young adults diagnosed with a sarcoma should be based on high‐quality evidence on both anti‐tumour efficacy and adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

The addition of chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment after surgery in carcinosarcoma of the womb

Carcinosarcomas of the uterus (womb) are uncommon cancers accounting for 4.3% of all cancers of the womb. These rare cancers have poor prognosis; one of the reasons for the poor survival outcome is the fact that over a third of these cancers (carcinosarcomas) have already spread beyond the womb at the time of diagnosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Treatment‐related early and late side effects on the kidney in survivors of childhood cancer

Over the past few decades, great improvements in diagnostics and treatment have resulted in a major increase in survival rates of childhood cancer. However, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at great risk of developing adverse effects as a result of their cancer treatment. One of the potential adverse effects of childhood cancer treatment is kidney damage. Renal adverse effects are common during and just after treatment, but very little evidence is available on the frequency of renal function impairment in long‐term CCS and on what the risk factors are. Survivors with impaired renal function due to childhood cancer treatment are usually symptom free. The kidneys are remarkably well able to compensate for problems in their functioning. However, when renal late adverse events become symptomatic, survivors can experience a range of symptoms, depending on the kidney functions that are damaged. This systematic review aimed to assess the magnitude of asymptomatic and symptomatic early and late renal adverse events in long‐term CCS and to identify which risk factors contribute to impaired renal function.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Methotrexate for high‐grade osteosarcoma in children and young adults

As a result of the introduction of chemotherapy, the survival of children with osteosarcoma has improved dramatically. The majority of the currently used treatment protocols are based on a combination of doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate (MTX) and/or ifosfamide, of which MTX seems to be one of the most active drugs. However, in the literature, this has not been unambiguously proven. A well‐informed decision on the use of MTX in the treatment of children and young adults diagnosed with primary high‐grade osteosarcoma should be based on high quality evidence on both antitumour effects and adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Chemotherapy (anticancer drugs) for patients with advanced small cell lung cancer

SmalI cell lung cancer accounts for nearly a quarter of all new cases of lung cancer. This cancer is often diagnosed in an advanced stage, which means that it has spread to the brain, liver, bone or bone marrow, and most patients die in the first year after diagnosis. This review found that first‐line chemotherapy (anticancer drugs) may prolong the survival of patients with advanced small cell lung cancer for some months when compared to supportive care, although the effect of this treatment on quality of life is unknown. The benefit of a new treatment (second‐line chemotherapy) when the disease has progressed or relapsed was even smaller, and the potential survival gain of some weeks must be balanced against its possible secondary effects. Since the available studies were scarce and of variable quality, more clinical trials are needed to assess and better inform patients about the real effectiveness of chemotherapy in advanced small cell lung cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both after surgery for treatment of a rare tumour of the ovary

Ovarian carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed Mullerian tumour) is a rare malignant gynaecological tumour comprising around 1% or less of all ovarian cancers. These tumours contain both carcinomatous (arising from the epithelial tissue, the tissue that lines the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body) and sarcomatous tissue (arising from the connective tissue) within them. This tumour usually presents at an advanced stage and has a poor survival rate despite treatment. It is usually treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, and sometimes radiotherapy. Various types of chemotherapy drugs have been used to treat the woman before and after surgery (neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about tests used to detect or screen for bladder cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 25, 2016

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 11, 2016

Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of bladder cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 7, 2016

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