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Hydroxyzine is an anti‐histamine medication that has been studied in anxiety disorders. This review shows that hydroxyzine is better than placebo in terms of anxiety symptoms in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Too few data were available to be able to draw any conclusions about the efficacy and tolerability of hydroxyzine compared with benzodiazepines and buspirone. Given the robust evidence for the efficacy of antidepressants for GAD, these findings suggest that hydroxyzine should not be recommended as first‐line treatment GAD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Fear of the dentist may be expressed as unco‐operative behaviour in children requiring dental treatment. Behaviour management problems can result in a child's tooth decay going untreated. While behavioural techniques play an important role in managing children, some children still find it difficult to co‐operate with dental treatment and may require sedation. This review examined the effectiveness of drugs to sedate a child whilst keeping them conscious. There is some weak evidence that midazolam administered in a drink of juice is effective, and nitrous oxide (laughing gas) may also be effective.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Women's experience of pain during labour varies greatly. Some women feel little pain whilst others find the pain extremely distressing.  A woman’s position in labour, mobility, and levels of fear and anxiety or, conversely, confidence may influence her experience of pain. Several drug and non‐drug interventions are available for managing pain during labour. In this review we have assessed the evidence on the effectiveness and safety of non‐opioid drugs in the management of pain in labour. Non‐opioid drugs are used to control mild to moderate pain and include non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, antispasmodics, sedatives and antihistamines. In the past, these drugs were used to help reduce women's anxiety and thus aid pain relief. Currently, they are not commonly used for pain relief in labour. However, they may still however be offered during the early stages of labour in some countries.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a condition characterised by a rash of red itchy raised weals or hives, which appear for no identifiable reason. Other names include chronic idiopathic or chronic ordinary urticaria. 'Spontaneous' differentiates this type of urticaria from 'inducible' or 'physical' urticaria, for which there are specific triggers such as cold or pressure. 'Chronic' indicates that the condition has continued for at least six weeks. Hives may be intensely itchy, and the appearance may be unsightly and distressing to sufferers. In some cases, hives can be accompanied by deeper swelling, known as angio‐oedema, which is most common around the eyes and mouth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Neurodiagnostic procedures are non‐invasive neurological investigations important for children with suspected neurological disorders. These investigations include brain imaging and brain electrical activity testing. For these tests to be successfully performed, the child needs to remain still for at least 30 to 45 minutes during the investigation period. Sedative agents are required for children, who are usually unable to remain still for this period of time.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Eczema is a common chronic disease. Itch is the most important symptom, and eczema is often accompanied by dry skin. Skin lesions include rash, redness, swelling of the skin, crusts, oozing, and sometimes also bleeding as a consequence of persistent scratching. Although the disease can resolve during childhood, it might also recur in or persist into adult life. The cause of eczema is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Moisturisers, topical corticosteroids, and topical immunomodulators are the mainstay during treatment of eczema, while more severe cases might need UV light therapy or systemic immunosuppressants. Itch is very difficult to treat and leads to scratching, which leads to more inflammation of the skin, and often people with eczema end up in a vicious circle of itching and scratching. The role of histamine in itching associated with eczema is not fully elucidated, but oral H1 antihistamines have been used for many years in the treatment of eczema. These might have been used largely for their sedative action, with highly sedative antihistamines, e.g. chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine. However, oral H1 antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as urticaria, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis, but their efficacy in alleviating itch and eczema remains unclear. This systematic review sought evidence for the effects and safety of the use of oral antihistamines for eczema, to guide their use in clinical practice.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Pruritus is the medical term for itching. This symptom can be a problem in palliative care settings where treatments for cancer or severe kidney disease are given at the same time. In this updated review, we searched for high quality clinical trials of drugs for preventing or treating itch in palliative care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Generalized anxiety disorder can dominate your life, and often lasts a long time. But there are a number of different treatment approaches that can help you learn to better manage your anxiety and lead a normal life again. Some medications are also effective.People who have generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) aren't afraid of specific things or situations, but of a wide range of things, which is why it is referred to as “generalized” anxiety. This can take a great emotional toll and also cause a number of physical symptoms such as drowsiness, muscle tension and a racing heartbeat. Being in a state of constant worry is exhausting, but there are different treatments that can help reduce the anxiety down to a tolerable level.Unlike other kinds of anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder often first develops in middle-aged people. But anxiety disorders can affect people of all ages.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 19, 2017

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