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Results: 19

The use of hyaluronic acid/carboxymethyl cellulose (HA/CMC) membrane, reduces the incidence, extent and severity of adhesions in the abdomen.

Adhesions in the abdomen cause abnormal bonding between adjacent peritoneal surfaces and are common after operations in the abdomen. They are composed of fibrous tissue but also contain blood vessels, fat and nerves. They result in a spectrum of problems that affect the patient (intestinal blockage, infertility and possibly pain); the surgeon (difficulties in access and dissection, prolongation of operative time, increase in blood loss, predisposition to bowel injury); the health care provider (increased cost due to readmissions and litigation). Prevention is the key. This review focus on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of two preventive agents applied in the abdomen during general surgical operations, Hyaluronic acid /carboxymethyl cellulose membrane and 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Hyaluronic acid and other non‐surgical treatment options for ankle osteoarthritis

Five studies showed the results of the use of hyaluronic acid for ankle osteoarthritis compared to other treatment (exercise (30 people) or botulinum toxin A injections (75 people) or to placebo (fake injection) (3 studies, 109 people). One study was a dose‐finding study (26 people). Follow‐up was three to six months. The quality of the evidence was graded as low, due to an unclear risk of bias and a low number of participants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Interventions for treating defects of the joint surfaces of the ankle bone in adults

Osteochondral defects are limited areas of damage to the lining of a joint. These defects involve the joint surface (chondral) and also the bone underneath the surface (osteo). The ankle is composed of three bones named the tibia (shin bone), fibula (the other lower leg bone) and talus (ankle bone). This review just looks osteochondral defects in the talus. Such defects occur mainly after trauma. They are rare but can result in pain and significant disability.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Adherence compounds in embryo transfer media for assisted reproductive technologies

Cochrane review authors assessed the effect of the addition of adherence compounds in embryo transfer media on fertility outcomes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Interventions for treating osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or jaw joint is located in front of the ear on either side of the face. However, it is the only joint that the dentists and maxillofacial surgeons predominantly have to deal with. As with many of the other joints, the TMJ can be affected by osteoarthritis (OA). This is characterized by progressive destruction of the internal surfaces of the joint which can result in debilitating pain and joint noises. Several disorders other than OA may affect the TMJ and the correct diagnosis is important such that it can be matched with appropriate therapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Viscosupplementation for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis worldwide. Hyaluronan and hylan (HA) products provide opportunity to treat OA in individual knee joints. To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of HA products, in knee OA, we have conducted a systematic review using Cochrane methodology. The analyses support the contention that the HA class of products is superior to placebo. There is considerable between‐product, between‐variable and time‐dependent variability in the clinical response. The clinical effect for some products against placebo on some variables at some time points is in the moderate to large effect size range. In general, sample size restrictions preclude any definitive comment on the safety of the HA class of products, however, within the constraints of the trial designs employed, no major safety issues were detected. The analyses suggest that viscosupplements are comparable in efficacy to systemic forms of active intervention, with more local reactions but fewer systemic adverse events, and that HA products have more prolonged effects than IA corticosteroids. Overall, the aforementioned analyses support the use of the HA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Joint corticosteroid injection for knee osteoarthritis

We searched the literature until 3 February 2015 for studies of the effects on pain, function, quality of life, and safety of intra‐articular (injected into the joint) corticosteroids compared with sham injection or no treatment in people with knee osteoarthritis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Can lavage and debridement help with osteoarthritis of the knee?

One option for treating osteoarthritis of the knee is arthroscopy to clean the surface of the knee joint and where necessary smooth the cartilage. But studies show that this surgery has no advantages over other non-operative treatments.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 16, 2014

Ingenol mebutate (Picato) for actinic keratosis: Overview

Ingenol mebutate (trade name: Picato) gel has been approved in Germany since November 2012 for the treatment of certain types of actinic keratosis.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 5, 2013

Hyaluronidase for cervical ripening and induction of labour

Hyaluronidase injected into the cervix increased cervical favourability but its effect on induction of labour is unknown and its use is not recommended.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Injection of bulking material around the anus (back passage) for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults

Loss of bowel control, also known as faecal incontinence, can be a devastating problem. It affects men and women of all ages in up to 15% of the adult population. Faecal incontinence can radically affect everyday life as many people become almost house bound, being unable to undertake simple tasks, such as shopping, because they are worried about faecal leakage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Injections of bulking agents for urinary incontinence in women

Stress incontinence is losing urine when coughing, laughing, sneezing or exercising. Usually muscles and tissue form a cushion supporting the base of the bladder and closing the urethra (the passage through which urine leaves the body). If they do not, artificial cushioning can be created by injecting bulking agents into the area around the urethra. The review of 14 trials, which included 2004 women, found some limited evidence that this can relieve stress incontinence in women. Other treatments such as surgery might be better. Using the women's own fat tissue as the agent injected can cause serious complications.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Interventions for actinic keratoses

Actinic keratoses are a skin disease caused by long‐term sun exposure. Damaged skin shows small, red, rough, scaly, flat spots called actinic keratoses or lesions, which feel like patches of dry skin. Symptoms such as bleeding and pain can be associated with actinic keratoses. Moreover, actinic keratoses have the potential to develop into skin cancer if left untreated. The reasons for treatment may include cosmetic appearance, relief of symptoms, or prevention of skin cancer. Treatment can be directed either at individual lesions or to larger areas of the skin where several visible and less visible lesions occur (field‐directed treatment).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Advanced sperm selection techniques for assisted reproduction

Cochrane review authors reviewed the evidence on advanced sperm selection techniques for assisted reproduction. We sought studies of all advanced sperm techniques apart from ultra‐high magnification, which is the subject of a separate Cochrane review. Our outcomes of interest included live birth, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage and fetal abnormalities.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

There is currently no evidence of effects of heparin and related substances for preventing the onset of diabetic kidney disease (DKD)

Heparin and related substances, including glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin, low‐molecular‐weight heparin (LMWH), heparinoids, heparitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid and keratan sulphate, have been demonstrated a few positive effects on delaying the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This review looked for randomised studies assessing the effect of heparin and related substances on preventing the onset of DKD. No study was available. Well designed and high quality randomised studies that address this issue are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Interventions for replacing missing teeth: maintaining and recovering soft tissue health around dental implants

Missing teeth can be replaced by dental implants. However, keeping the gums around the implants healthy is important, as they can be negatively affected by dental plaque and its induced inflammation. Prevention of this may include daily implant cleaning techniques by patients and regular cleaning by dental professionals. Antibacterial mouthrinses may help reduce plaque and bleeding around dental implants, but there is no evidence that powered toothbrushes are better than manual toothbrushes or that brushing with a certain gel or dentifrice is better than another. Among the professionally administered treatments there is no evidence that phosphoric acid is more effective than scaling and polishing, that chlorhexidine enclosed in the inner part of implants is superior to physiologic solution or that a topical antibiotic inserted submucosally is better than a chlorhexidine gel.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Topical preparations for preventing stretch marks in pregnancy

Stretch marks commonly develop during pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester. They affect 50% to 90% of women. They appear as red lines or streaks that fade slowly after the pregnancy to leave pale lines on the skin. The abdomen, breasts and thighs are most often affected. They do not disappear entirely, therefore any treatment which prevents them would be welcomed by many women. In this review, we identified randomised controlled trials and quasi‐randomised controlled trials that compared topical creams, lotions and ointments containing active ingredients with placebo or no treatment, and topical preparations with active ingredients versus other topical preparations.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatments for nail psoriasis

Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease with a prevalence in 2% to 3% of the population, according to European studies. Involvement of the nails occurs in about 50%. Nail psoriasis is difficult to treat, but may respond to some treatments. We aimed to review the efficacy and safety of the treatments used for nail psoriasis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Agents that prevent the development of abdominal adhesions following surgery: an overview of Cochrane reviews

Abdominal adhesions are web like structures that commonly form following abdominal or pelvic surgery. They are a result of damage to the lining of the abdomen and can cause multiple conditions such as chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Many types of solid, liquid, gel and pharmacological agents have been developed which, when applied during surgery, supposedly reduce the chance that adhesions will develop. However, there has been considerable disagreement as to which agent is more effective. We aimed to summarise the evidence from Cochrane Reviews regarding anti‐adhesion agents in gynaecological surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

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