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Oral fluphenazine versus placebo for schizophrenia

Antipsychotic drugs are the first line and mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia. They help to effectively treat psychotic symptoms such as hearing voices and seeing things (hallucinations) and having strange beliefs (delusions). Fluphenazine was one of the first antipsychotics and has been available for around 50 years. Fluphenazine is inexpensive and in developing countries, may be one of the only drug treatments available. In most of Europe and North America, despite still being available, the arrival of newer antipsychotic drugs has reduced the use of fluphenazine and its market share. Fluphenazine has debilitating side effects, including: dizziness; movement disorders such as involuntary movements or spasms; shaking and tremors; inner restlessness and the inability to sit still; and problems with blood pressure, fever and muscle stiffness.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Depot fluphenazine decanoate and enanthate for schizophrenia

People with schizophrenia often hear voices or see things (hallucinations) and have strange beliefs (delusions). The main treatment for these symptoms of schizophrenia are antipsychotic drugs, which can be taken by mouth (tablet) or by an injection (depot). Fluphenazine was one of the first antipsychotic to be produced in depot form. The depot comes in two forms (decanoate and enanthate). Depot injections are often used for people who refuse or forget to take tablets (showing poor compliance or adherence with medication). Fluphenazine is an older antipsychotic drug that is very effective in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, when compared to newer antipsychotic drugs, fluphenazine may have serious side effects (such as involuntary shaking, tremors, muscle stiffness and the inability to sit still) and is known to lower people’s mood.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Comparing effectiveness of an older antipsychotic (oral fluphenazine) with newer antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia

People with schizophrenia often hear voices or see things (hallucinations) and have strange beliefs (delusions). It is a distressing and debilitating illness. The main treatment for schizophrenia is antipsychotic drugs. Fluphenazine is an older antipsychotic drug first formulated in the 1950s, effective for treating the psychoses of schizophrenia. However fluphenazine can cause some serious side effects, particularly movement disorders, and is known to lower people’s mood. Fluphenazine is inexpensive but the arrival of newer antipsychotic drugs with fewer movement disorder side effects reduced its use and market share.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Fluphenazine versus low‐potency antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia

People with schizophrenia often hear voices or see things (hallucinations) and have strange beliefs (delusions). It is a serious, often long lasting, mental illness that can have a severe detrimental effect on all aspects of the sufferer's life. Antipsychotic drugs are the main treatment for the symptoms of schizophrenia. Fluphenazine is an older antipsychotic that is effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, most antipsychotics have side effects and when compared to newer antipsychotic drugs, fluphenazine is thought to be more likely to cause serious movement disorders such as involuntary shaking, tremors, muscle stiffness and the inability to sit still. Fluphenazine is also known to lower people’s mood.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia

There are only a few good quality studies comparing the acute treatment of early episode schizophrenia with an antipsychotic medication compared to placebo or psychosocial treatment. It appears that initial medication treatment reduces the study attrition rates while also increasing the risk for medication‐induced side effects. Data are too limited to assess the effects of initial antipsychotic medication treatment on outcomes for individuals with an early episode of schizophrenia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antipsychotic Medicines for Treating Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Research for Adults and Caregivers

This summary talks about one type of medicine—antipsychotics— used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It will tell you what research says about how older and newer antipsychotics compare for treating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in adults. Please note that the research on antipsychotics as treatment for bipolar disorder is limited, and more research is needed. This summary will also tell you about the possible side effects of antipsychotics. It can help you talk with your doctor about whether or not one of these antipsychotic medicines might be right for you.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 10, 2013

Depot bromperidol decanoate for schizophrenia

Bromperidol decanoate is used as a long‐acting antipsychotic medication in at least Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. The preparation seems to be less potent than other depot antipsychotics (such as fluphenazine and haloperidol decanoate) and better than placebo injection. However, this older antipsychotic preparation has very few data from good quality studies and new trials are needed to fully understand the effects of this preparation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Depot fluspirilene for schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic and relapsing mental illness with a worldwide lifetime prevalence of about one percent. Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, but compliance with medication is often poor due to the adverse effects profile of the drugs and/or the patient's beliefs about their illness. Non‐compliance with medication is a major cause of relapse with significant personal, social and economic costs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Penfluridol for schizophrenia

Synopsis pending.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Drugs and natural products for self‐harm in adults

We have reviewed the international literature regarding pharmacological (drug) and natural product (dietary supplementation) treatment trials in this field. A total of seven trials meeting our inclusion criteria were identified. There is little evidence of beneficial effects of either pharmacological or natural product treatments. However, few trials have been conducted and those that have are small, meaning that possible beneficial effects of some therapies cannot be ruled out.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Drug combinations for chronic neuropathic pain in adults

Neuropathic pain – due to nerve disease or damage – is often treated by pain medications which have limited effect and/or dose‐related side effects when given alone. Combinations of more than one drug are often used with the goal of achieving better pain relief or fewer side effects (if the pain relieving effects of the combined drugs are more additive than the side effects), or both. Despite evidence that over 45% of individuals suffering from neuropathic pain take two or more drugs for their pain, we could find only 21 high‐quality studies of various different systemic and topical drug combinations. Given the wide possible variety of different drug combinations and the small number of studies, results for neuropathic pain from this review are insufficient to suggest the value of any one specific drug combination. However, the publication of multiple high‐quality studies suggesting the superiority of some drug combinations, together with evidence that drug combinations are widely used in clinical practice, underline the importance of conducting more combination studies with improved methodology.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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