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More evidence needed on using antibiotics to try and prevent chronic lung disease in preterm babies testing positive for U urealyticum. Chronic lung disease (CLD) is a major health risk often faced by preterm babies on ventilation (machine‐assisted breathing). Ureaplasma urealyticum is a common type of infection that may be one of the causes of CLD, although this has not been proven. Erythromycin is an antibiotic used for other infections caused by U urealyticum. When a baby tests positive for U urealyticum, erythromycin has been tried as a preventive measure. The review found that there is not enough evidence from trials to show whether or not testing preterm babies for U urealyticum and using erythromycin can prevent CLD or mortality.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

There is not enough evidence to show any benefit from erythromycin used in large or small doses for the prevention or treatment of feeding problems in premature infants. Premature infants who need intensive care often have feeding problems. Frequently, some food stays in the stomach without being digested. Earlier feeding can facilitate normal development of the gastrointestinal tract and can avoid health problems related to feeding by intravenous lines. Erythromycin is an antibiotic that has an effect on the gastrointestinal tract and may help infants with feeding problems. However, this review found that there is not enough evidence to recommend the use of erythromycin in small or large doses to prevent or treat premature infants with feeding problems.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Impetigo causes blister‐like sores. The sores can fill with pus and form scabs, and scratching can spread the infection. Impetigo is caused by bacteria. It is contagious and usually occurs in children. It is the most common bacterial skin infection presented by children to primary care physicians. Treatment options include topical antibiotics (antibiotic creams), oral antibiotics (antibiotics taken by mouth), and disinfectant solutions. There is no generally agreed standard treatment, and the evidence on what intervention works best is not clear.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Cochrane authors reviewed the available evidence from randomised controlled trials on the use of antibiotics for adults with acute laryngitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Bacillus Calmette‐Guérin (BCG) is a widely used tuberculosis vaccine derived from a non‐infectious strain of the bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis) and mainly given to young children. Usually, the only adverse reaction to the vaccine is an ulcer at the site of injection, which may leave a small scar.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

COPD is a common chronic respiratory disease mainly affecting people who smoke now or have done so previously. It could become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. People with COPD experience gradually worsening shortness of breath and cough with sputum because of permanent damage to their airways and lungs. Those with COPD may have flare‐ups (or exacerbations) that usually occur after respiratory infections. Exacerbations may lead to further irreversible loss of lung function with days off work, hospital admission, reduction in quality of life and they may even cause death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Pityriasis rosea is a scaly rash that mostly affects young adults. It is relatively common and affects about 170 out of every 100,000 people in the community each year. The first sign is a patch of scales, usually on the trunk. A generalised eruption then follows and all lesions disappear within 2 to 12 weeks. This review is important because about 50% of people with pityriasis rosea experience moderate to severe itch. It is not known whether the current treatments, which include tablets, creams, and ultra‐violet radiation, are useful and whether the benefits outweigh the risk of adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Ureaplasmas are normal flora in the vagina of many women. In some women high levels of ureaplasma in the vagina, which probably reflect the presence of infection in the uterus, may have a role in pregnancy complications, or may contribute to babies being born before full term (preterm birth), or both. These babies can have serious health problems. Some antibiotics can be safely used during pregnancy and are also active against ureaplasma. The authors identified only one trial (involving 1071 women) that was eligible for inclusion in this review. Therefore, there is insufficient data to assess whether giving antibiotics to women with ureaplasma in the vagina reduces the risk of preterm birth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease caused by pertussis bacteria and may lead to death, particularly in infants less than 12 months of age. Although it can be prevented by routine vaccination, it still affects many people. Thirteen trials involving 2197 participants were included in this review. We found that several antibiotic treatments were equally effective in eliminating the bacteria infecting patients, but they did not alter the clinical outcome. There was insufficient evidence to decide whether there is benefit for treating healthy contacts. Side effects were reported with antibiotics and they varied from one antibiotic to another. The result of the review should be interpreted with caution since this review is based on a limited number of trials and some of these trials involved small numbers of participants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

To summarise the evidence about the effect and safety of macrolide antibiotics for diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

This review sought to answer the question of whether antibiotics are effective in the treatment of LRTIs caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

We reviewed the evidence on the effect of antibiotics on clinical outcomes in children with bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Research shows that milder cases of impetigo go away faster when they are treated with particular antibiotic creams. It isn't clear whether disinfectant solutions or creams can help.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 24, 2017

Cellulitis and erysipelas are both bacterial infections of the skin that most commonly affect the leg. Erysipelas affects the upper layers of the skin, and cellulitis affects its deeper parts, but in practice it is often hard to tell the difference between them, so we consider them together for this review (and refer to them as 'cellulitis'). Up to 50% of people with cellulitis experience repeated episodes. Despite the burden of this condition, there is a lack of high‐certainty, evidence‐based information about the desirable treatment for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 20, 2017

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection which, if a mother has it during pregnancy and labour, can cause eye or lung infections in the newborn baby. The risk of transmission during birth varies, but is about 20% to 50% for eye infections and about 10% to 20% for infection of the lungs. Mothers may also be at increased risk of infection of the uterus. The review looked at various antibiotics being used during pregnancy to reduce these problems and to assess any adverse effects. Tetracyclines taken in pregnancy are known to be associated with teeth and bone abnormalities in babies, and some women find erythromycin unpleasant to take because of feeling sick and vomiting. The review found eleven trials, involving 1449 women, on erythromycin, amoxycillin, azithromycin and clindamycin, and the overall trial quality was good. However, all the trials assessed 'microbiological cure' (that is they looked for an eradication of the infection) and none assessed whether the eye or lung problems for the baby were reduced. Also, none of the trials were large enough to assess potential adverse outcomes adequately. The review found amoxycillin was an effective alternative to erythromycin but lack of long‐term assessment of outcomes caused concern about its routine use in practice. If erythromycin is used, some women may stop taking it because of adverse effects. Azithromycin and clindamycin are potential alternatives. More research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

This review aimed to assess whether the treatment of chlamydial infection during pregnancy cured the infection and prevented complications to the women and babies without causing side effects. This new review supersedes an earlier review on this topic.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Postoperative ileus (POI) refers to the delayed recovery of bowel function following abdominal surgery. POI may cause major patient discomfort and delayed recovery. Several drugs are commonly used to treat POI but it is unclear which drugs are supported by patient‐oriented research.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

If you avoid rosacea triggers, you may be able to prevent outbreaks of inflammation. The condition can be treated with creams or gels, and by taking medication.Rosacea is a common, often chronic inflammation of facial skin. It causes red patches of skin on your face, tiny visible blood vessels and spots, which come and go. Over time, people often discover that certain things trigger their outbreaks. These might include certain foods, alcohol, cosmetics or medications, but different people often have different triggers. Sunlight also plays a role. Although the effects of sunlight on rosacea symptoms vary from person to person, sunburn is hard on your skin and may even harm it.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 14, 2014

Psoriasis, a disease which produces scaly pink patches on the skin, often gets worse after a bacterial throat infection or tonsillitis. When someone with psoriasis has a throat infection, antibiotics are sometimes used in an attempt to prevent this from happening. For people with psoriasis and repeated throat infections tonsillectomy is sometimes recommended. The review found no evidence from trials that either antibiotics or tonsillectomy are helpful for people with psoriasis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We found no benefit for the use of antibiotics for women going into labour too early, with their membranes still intact.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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