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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a very common cause of symptomatic and asymptomatic vaginal infection. It has been associated with a high incidence of obstetric and gynaecologic complications and an increased risk of transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). This review evaluated the effectiveness and adverse effects of antimicrobial agents used to treat BV in non‐pregnant women. Twenty‐four trials involving 4422 women were reviewed. With regard to less treatment failure, clindamycin was superior to placebo but comparable to metronidazole, irrespective of the dose regimen. Metronidazole tended to cause a higher rate of adverse events, such as metallic taste and nausea and vomiting, than did clindamycin. Oral lactobacillus combined with metronidazole was more effective than metronidazole alone. Administered in an intravaginal gelatin tablet, lactobacillus was also more effective than oral metronidazole. Triple sulfonamide cream was less effective compared with clindamycin. Hydrogen peroxide douche was not as effective as a single 2 g dose of metronidazole yet caused more harms. Only one trial involved asymptomatic women and the result was not conclusive. There was insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion on the effectiveness of other promising drugs. Drugs effective for bacterial vaginosis include clindamycin preparations, oral metronidazole, and oral and intravaginal tablets of lactobacillus. Adverse effects of metronidazole include metallic taste, and nausea and vomiting. Information on possible side effects of lactobacillus preparations is required.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 8, 2009

Ureaplasmas are normal flora in the vagina of many women. In some women high levels of ureaplasma in the vagina, which probably reflect the presence of infection in the uterus, may have a role in pregnancy complications, or may contribute to babies being born before full term (preterm birth), or both. These babies can have serious health problems. Some antibiotics can be safely used during pregnancy and are also active against ureaplasma. The authors identified only one trial (involving 1071 women) that was eligible for inclusion in this review. Therefore, there is insufficient data to assess whether giving antibiotics to women with ureaplasma in the vagina reduces the risk of preterm birth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 7, 2011

Intravenous clindamycin plus gentamicin is more effective than other antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics for treatment of womb infection after childbirth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 2, 2015

Review question: Cochrane authors reviewed available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the use of antibiotics for the treatment of pregnant women with intra‐amniotic infection (chorioamnionitis).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 19, 2014

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a gastrointestinal disease that primarily affects premature infants. Infants who have developed NEC could rapidly become very sick, leading to various morbidities and even death. The cause of NEC is uncertain and possibly multifactorial, but an infectious agent is most commonly suspected. Various antibiotic combinations are commonly used as treatment in such infants. Certain antibiotic regimens could lead to drug side effects and even antibiotic resistance. The authors of this study reviewed the medical literature to ascertain the best antibiotic combination for the treatment of this condition. Four eligible studies were identified and only two of these studies were found to be suitable for analysis. Both these studies were performed before 1988. The two studies included 62 infants with NEC and compared one antibiotic regimen to another. There was no difference between the two groups. The authors concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend a particular antibiotic regimen for NEC.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 15, 2012

We assessed the effectiveness in women and the safety in men of concurrent antibiotic treatment for the sexual partners of women treated for bacterial vaginosis (BV).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 1, 2016

The available evidence fails to identify any one superior regimen for the treatment of TE. The choice of therapy will often be directed by available therapy. Given the current evidence, TMP‐SMX appears to be an effective alternative therapy for TE in resource‐poor settings where P+S are not available.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 19, 2006

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common causes of genital discomfort in women of reproductive age. This condition occurs when there is an imbalance in the population of normal vaginal micro‐organism with depletion of the dominant lactobacilli and overgrowth of other types of bacteria. Treatment of this condition using recommended antibiotics is often associated with failure and high rates of recurrence. This led to the concept of replacing the depleted lactobacilli using probiotic strains as a treatment approach. This review investigated the evidence for the use of probiotic preparations either alone or in conjunction with antibiotics for the treatment of BV. The current research does not provide conclusive evidence that probiotics are superior to or enhance the effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of BV. In addition, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of probiotics either before, during or after antibiotic treatment as a means of ensuring successful treatment or reduce recurrence. Larger, well‐designed randomized controlled trials with standardized methodologies are needed to confirm the benefits of probiotics in the treatment of BV.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 7, 2009

A septic abortion is any abortion with infection after a miscarriage or intentional pregnancy termination. One of the signs of septic abortion is fever. Antibiotic treatment is very important for the treatment of septic abortion. The recommended treatments include antibiotics that have effects on different types of bacteria. However, there is no agreement on the most effective antibiotics to be used either alone or in combination to treat septic abortion.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 1, 2016

We wanted to know which antibiotic was more effective in treating sore throats caused by bacteria (group A beta‐haemolytic streptococci (GABHS)).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 11, 2016

Bacterial vaginosis can cause symptoms such as discharge with an unpleasant odor. The antibiotics clindamycin and metronidazole are both effective treatments for bacterial vaginosis. There has not yet been enough research on the possible benefits of lactic acid bacteria treatments.Bacterial vaginosis is quite common and caused by changes in the vaginal flora that allow rapid growth of specific types of bacteria (usually Gardnerella).The infection can cause a thin, grayish-white discharge with an unpleasant odor, but it often goes undetected. If it does produce symptoms, antibiotics can be used as an effective treatment, also during pregnancy. Treatment can help lower the slightly increased risk of miscarriage due to the infection, too.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 22, 2015

This review aimed to assess whether the treatment of chlamydial infection during pregnancy cured the infection and prevented complications to the women and babies without causing side effects. This new review supersedes an earlier review on this topic.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 22, 2017

We assessed the effectiveness and safety of different treatments for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) that are recommended for consideration by current clinical guidelines for treatment of PID (the 2015 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for treatment of PID).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 24, 2017

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection which, if a mother has it during pregnancy and labour, can cause eye or lung infections in the newborn baby. The risk of transmission during birth varies, but is about 20% to 50% for eye infections and about 10% to 20% for infection of the lungs. Mothers may also be at increased risk of infection of the uterus. The review looked at various antibiotics being used during pregnancy to reduce these problems and to assess any adverse effects. Tetracyclines taken in pregnancy are known to be associated with teeth and bone abnormalities in babies, and some women find erythromycin unpleasant to take because of feeling sick and vomiting. The review found eleven trials, involving 1449 women, on erythromycin, amoxycillin, azithromycin and clindamycin, and the overall trial quality was good. However, all the trials assessed 'microbiological cure' (that is they looked for an eradication of the infection) and none assessed whether the eye or lung problems for the baby were reduced. Also, none of the trials were large enough to assess potential adverse outcomes adequately. The review found amoxycillin was an effective alternative to erythromycin but lack of long‐term assessment of outcomes caused concern about its routine use in practice. If erythromycin is used, some women may stop taking it because of adverse effects. Azithromycin and clindamycin are potential alternatives. More research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 26, 1998

If you avoid rosacea triggers, you may be able to prevent outbreaks of inflammation. The condition can be treated with creams or gels, and by taking medication.Rosacea is a common, often chronic inflammation of facial skin. It causes red patches of skin on your face, tiny visible blood vessels and spots, which come and go. Over time, people often discover that certain things trigger their outbreaks. These might include certain foods, alcohol, cosmetics or medications, but different people often have different triggers. Sunlight also plays a role. Although the effects of sunlight on rosacea symptoms vary from person to person, sunburn is hard on your skin and may even harm it.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 14, 2014

Bacteria are normally present in the birth canal and are useful in maintaining the health of the vagina. However, if the numbers of some of the bacteria increase, this is called bacterial vaginosis. For some women, there are no symptoms but for others it may cause an unpleasant discharge and may cause some babies to be born too early. These babies can suffer from problems related to their immaturity both in the weeks following birth such as breathing difficulty, infection and bleeding within the brain as well as problems when growing up such as poor growth, chronic lung disease and delayed development.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 31, 2013

Antibiotics are used to prevent life‐threatening complications for mother and baby when the amniotic fluid is infected, but it is not known which antibiotic is best.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 22, 2002

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a long‐term, distressing skin condition involving multiple painful boils in skin creases, such as the armpits, groin, and genital region, estimated to affect about 1 in 100 people. It typically begins in early adulthood and has a large impact on quality of life because of pain, scarring, and low self‐esteem. Doctors and the general public have largely ignored the condition, in part because people with HS do not wish to draw attention to their condition, so there is a relative lack of evidence to guide treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 7, 2015

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether treatment using lasers and other light sources improves the whiteheads and blackheads, and inflamed spots that people with acne have. We also wanted to know how people with acne assessed their own improvement, and whether they found that these therapies caused unpleasant effects like blistering or scarring. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer these questions and found 71 studies, with a total of 4211 participants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Rosacea is a common skin condition causing flushing, redness, red pimples and pustules on the face, and should not be confused with acne. Dilated blood vessels may appear near the surface of the skin (telangiectasia). It can also cause inflammation of the eyes or eyelids, or both (ocular rosacea). Some people can develop a thickening of the skin, especially of the nose (rhinophyma). Although the cause of rosacea remains unclear, a wide variety of treatments are available for this persistent (chronic) and recurring and often distressing disease. These include medications applied directly to the skin (topical), oral medications and light‐based therapies. We wanted to discover how people assessed their treatments: if the treatments changed their quality of life, if they saw changes in their condition and if there were side effects. From the doctors, we wanted to discover whether treatments changed the severity of rosacea, as well as how long it took before symptoms reduced and reappeared.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 28, 2015

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