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The orally‐administered cytotoxic, hydroxyurea, may be given alongside radiotherapy for treating cervix cancer. Eight trials comparing concomitant hydroxyurea and radiotherapy with radiotherapy alone were assessed. They were not of sufficient quality to be able to pool the data. Although several trials reported an improvement in survival for patients receiving hydroxyurea, this conclusion was unreliable owing to methodological problems associated with trials including small sample size, a large number of patients excluded from analysis and questionable methods of analysis such as exclusion of treatment related deaths.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and almost 75% of people are incurable at diagnosis. Non‐small cell is the most common type of lung cancer (almost 90% of all lung cancer cases). For many of these people, chemotherapy is a good treatment option and it is associated with longer survival and better quality of life. However, treatment for people with advanced non‐small cell lung cancer is palliative, in that it provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms. Treatments that include cisplatin or carboplatin plus another drug are the most widely used drug combinations, but they can be associated with undesirable toxicity. Thus, it would be desirable to have a treatment that is just as effective but with less toxicity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of treatments to prevent or reduce damage to nerves from the anticancer (chemotherapy) drug cisplatin or other platinum‐containing drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive type of cancer, usually linked with previous exposure to asbestos. Its most common site is the pleura, a protective lining of the lungs. Currently there is no established standard treatment for mesothelioma. This review found a large clinical trial that examined the effectiveness of pemetrexed disodium, an anticancer drug developed to treat pleural mesothelioma, given in combination with another cancer drug, cisplatin. The results indicate that pemetrexed used in combination with cisplatin significantly increases the length of survival, when compared with cisplatin alone. Further research is needed into the optimum treatment regimen for pleural mesothelioma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Ovarian cancer is the seventh commonest female cancer worldwide. Single‐drug or combination chemotherapy is used routinely to treat it. This review found a small benefit in platinum‐based chemotherapy over non‐platinum therapy. It also found that platinum combinations may offer improved survival over single platinum and that cisplatin and carboplatin are equally effective. The trials were done when paclitaxel (an effective new drug) was not used routinely. The results therefore, will need to be looked at in the light of new evidence from paclitaxel trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

When bladder cancer has spread beyond the bladder and is unresectable or metastatic, the possibility of cure is severely diminished. Treatment at this stage of the disease aims to reduce the disease‐related symptoms and to improve quality of life. Chemotherapy is the main treatment offered to patients with this condition and one drug that has recently shown activity is gemcitabine. This review aimed to determine the effectiveness and toxicity of gemcitabine by looking at the evidence published from randomised clinical trials. Patients receiving gemcitabine combined with cisplatin had a similar overall survival but less toxicity when compared to the well‐established chemotherapeutic treatment of MVAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatin). This suggests that gemcitabine plus cisplatin may be considered an alternative chemotherapy schedule to MVAC for advanced bladder cancer but the evidence is limited to one trial only. For patients who have poor kidney function or poor performance status the combination of gemcitabine plus carboplatin may be considered.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

We reviewed the evidence of the effects of different durations of platinum infusion to prevent hearing loss or tinnitus, or both, in children with cancer. We also looked at anti‐tumour efficacy, adverse effects other than hearing loss and quality of life.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Cancer of the esophagus often is not discovered until it is at quite an advanced stage. This means that even removing the tumor through surgery is not very successful, and many people die within five years. Chemotherapy (cancer‐fighting drugs such as cisplatin) has been used before surgery to try to shrink the tumor, making it easier to operate on and stopping it from spreading. Therefore, chemotherapy may help people to live longer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Cervical cancer often affects young women. Cancer that has come back after initial treatment (recurrent) or has already spread around the body at diagnosis (metastatic) is incurable so chemotherapy is aimed at improving length of life, while maintaining good quality of life. A literature search was conducted identifying 30 potential trials; four trials were excluded. The 26 clinical trials included in this review encompass a large range of different drugs, doses and combinations in a mixed group of patients over a long time period (1976 to 2011), making it difficult to compare treatment options. Although there are no trials directly comparing chemotherapy with symptomatic management alone, chemotherapy is widely used in this setting and assumed to be of benefit. Cisplatin and carboplatin chemotherapy were shown to shrink the cancer in 10% to 30% of patients and are widely used in current practice. Cisplatin chemotherapy when combined with other drugs has been shown to prolong survival by a few months compared with cisplatin alone, but with the cost of increased side effects. Other chemotherapy has been used, but has been found to be less effective or more toxic. Quality of life for patients on chemotherapy appears to be similar for cisplatin and cisplatin‐based combinations. Nearly all patients in these studies were relatively fit and well prior to starting treatment, despite their cancer; these results may not be the same in patients who are not fit and well.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

As a result of the introduction of chemotherapy, the survival of children with osteosarcoma has improved dramatically. The majority of the currently used treatment protocols are based on a combination of doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate (MTX) and/or ifosfamide, of which MTX seems to be one of the most active drugs. However, in the literature, this has not been unambiguously proven. A well‐informed decision on the use of MTX in the treatment of children and young adults diagnosed with primary high‐grade osteosarcoma should be based on high quality evidence on both antitumour effects and adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Surgery, radiotherapy or sometimes both were the best treatments for locally advanced cervical cancer. This is cancer that has spread beyond the cervix (neck of the womb) into the surrounding tissues, such as the vagina, sides of the pelvis or nearby lymph nodes. The exact choice of treatment would have depended on the size and location of the tumour and the preferences of the woman and her doctor.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Lung carcinoma is the single most common source of brain metastases (BM) in adults. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 20% of all cases of lung cancer. It tends to disseminate early in the course of its natural history and to grow quickly. Approximately 10% to 18% of patients present with BM at the time of initial diagnosis, and an additional 40% to 50% will develop BM some time during the course of their disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Women with cervical cancer that is too big to be removed by surgery, or has spread to the tissues around the cervix (often called locally advanced cervical cancer) may be treated with radiotherapy (treatment with x‐rays). They might also get chemotherapy (drug treatment) alongside radiotherapy. This is called chemoradiotherapy (or chemoradiation). This review brought together 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that were carried out in many countries. The results of the review showed that women who had chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer were likely to live for longer than women who had just radiotherapy. Five years after being treated, 66 out of every 100 women who received chemoradiotherapy were still alive compared with 60 out of every 100 who just had radiotherapy. Women who received chemoradiotherapy were also less likely to have the cancer come back or spread to other parts of the body. Chemoradiotherapy helped all women, even those with bigger tumours, or tumours that had spread more. Also, the different drugs that had been used in the trials (cisplatin, 5‐fluourouracil or mitomycin‐C) all helped women to live longer or stop the cancer from coming back or spreading.  Some of the short term side effects were worse for women who received chemoradiotherapy. Doctors can usually help women to cope with the short term side effects of their treatment. Unfortunately, there was not enough information to be certain whether the long‐term side effects are worse with chemoradiotherapy or not.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Standard treatment for locally advanced stage cervical cancer (stage IIB to IVA) is 'concurrent chemoradiation' when anticancer drugs are given during the same treatment period as pelvic radiotherapy (radiation therapy to lower abdomen). However, the tumour may remain (residual cancer) or may come back (recurrent cancer) after this standard treatment. This review evaluated whether giving additional anticancer drugs (ACTs) after standard treatment could help women with locally advanced cervical cancer to live longer compared with standard treatment alone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Dementia is frequently associated with Parkinson's Disease. While a number of neurotransmitters appear to be involved, loss of cholinergic functioning is particularly associated with Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD) suggesting a potential utility for cholinesterase inhibitors. Rivastigmine appears to moderately improve cognition and to a lesser extent activities of daily living in patients with PDD. There was a clinically meaningful benefit in 15% of patients. Efficacy in other domains requires confirmation. Tolerability in particular nausea, vomiting and tremor appear problematic.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women. Most women with early stage cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or, radiotherapy, or both. Radiotherapy uses high energy x‐rays to damage tumour cells. Chemotherapy (anti‐cancer) drugs use different ways to stop tumour cells dividing so they stop growing or they die.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Over the past few decades, great improvements in diagnostics and treatment have resulted in a major increase in survival rates of childhood cancer. However, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at great risk of developing adverse effects as a result of their cancer treatment. One of the potential adverse effects of childhood cancer treatment is kidney damage. Renal adverse effects are common during and just after treatment, but very little evidence is available on the frequency of renal function impairment in long‐term CCS and on what the risk factors are. Survivors with impaired renal function due to childhood cancer treatment are usually symptom free. The kidneys are remarkably well able to compensate for problems in their functioning. However, when renal late adverse events become symptomatic, survivors can experience a range of symptoms, depending on the kidney functions that are damaged. This systematic review aimed to assess the magnitude of asymptomatic and symptomatic early and late renal adverse events in long‐term CCS and to identify which risk factors contribute to impaired renal function.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of any medical intervention to prevent hearing loss in children with cancer treated with platinum‐based therapy (that is, including the anti‐cancer drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, or a combination of these). We also looked at anti‐cancer effectiveness, side effects other than hearing loss and quality of life.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

High‐risk neuroblastoma is a rare malignant disease and mainly affects infants and very young children. The tumors mainly develop in the core part (medulla) of the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland is located on top of the kidneys. A tumor increasing in size would primarily expected to appear in the belly. High‐risk means patients having one or several clinical symptoms or signs, such as metastasis or specific genetic features, which are known to increase the risk for an adverse outcome. The assignment to a high‐risk group is defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system. In the rapid COJEC induction schedule, higher single doses of selected drugs than standard induction schedules are administered over a substantially shorter treatment period, with shorter intervals between cycles. Shorter intervals and higher doses increase the dose intensity of chemotherapy and might improve survival.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The issue: Advanced endometrial cancer (FIGO stage III and IV) is cancer of the womb which has spread beyond the womb to the ovaries, vagina, other adjacent tissues, draining lymph nodes, or other organs. Women are usually treated by surgery to remove as much of the tumour as possible. They are then offered adjuvant (meaning 'added') radiotherapy (high energy x‐rays and other rays that destroy cancer cells), or chemotherapy (anti‐cancer drugs), or both. There is uncertainty as to which treatment (radio‐ or chemotherapy or both) after surgery has the greatest effect on survival, and which anti‐cancer drugs work best.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

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