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Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections (excluding group B streptococcal and HIV)

Bacteria live in women's vaginas and generally cause no problems. Very occasionally they infect the placenta during labour and can pass to the baby, causing an infection. These infections can occasionally make the baby very ill and very occasionally the baby might die.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antibacterial chlorhexidine applied to the vagina during labour to prevent early‐onset group B streptococcal infection in the newborn

There is no evidence to show that washing the vagina with the antibacterial liquid chlorhexidine or using a chlorhexidine gel during labour reduces group B β‐hemolytic streptococcal (GBS) infections in babies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Antiseptic treatment (chlorhexidine) to prevent tooth decay in children and young people

This review examined the effectiveness of varnishes and gels containing chlorhexidine in preventing tooth decay in children and young people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Chlorhexidine skin care for prevention of mortality and infection in neonates

Infections are the single most important cause of neonatal deaths worldwide and are responsible for almost a third of all neonatal mortality. Affordable, feasible and efficacious interventions to reduce neonatal infections and improved neonatal survival are needed. Chlorhexidine, a broad spectrum antiseptic agent, is active against common organisms causing perinatal infections. Use of chlorhexidine on neonatal skin or cord, or both, for prevention of infection is a possible strategy to improve neonatal survival. In this review we assessed the effects of neonatal skin or cord care with chlorhexidine compared to routine care or no treatment on neonatal survival and infections in newborn infants born in the hospital or community.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Interventions for recurrent nosebleeds of unknown cause in children

Nosebleeds in children usually just stop by themselves or after pinching the nose. However, some children get repeated nosebleeds with no specific cause (recurrent idiopathic epistaxis). The most common treatments are cautery or antiseptic cream, or both. Cautery (a method of sealing) can be painful even with local anaesthetic, and usually involves using a silver nitrate stick to seal off a visible blood vessel inside the nose that may be rupturing. Other options include ointments and nasal sprays. The review of trials found that there is not enough evidence to compare the effectiveness of different treatment options, however using a lower concentration of silver nitrate cautery is more effective in the short term and less painful. More research is needed to show the best options for reducing recurrent nosebleeds of unknown cause in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Skin preparation for preventing infection following caesarean section

Surgical site infections are the third most frequently reported hospital‐ acquired infection. Women who give birth by caesarean section are exposed to the possibility of infection from their own, and external or environmental, sources of infection. Preventing infection by properly preparing the skin before incision is thus a vital part of the overall care given to women prior to caesarean birth. An antiseptic is applied to remove or reduce bacteria. These antiseptics include iodine or povidone‐iodine, alcohol, chlorhexidine and parachlorometaxylenol and can be applied as liquids or powders, scrubs, paints, swabs or on impregnated drapes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Preoperative bathing or showering with skin antiseptics to prevent surgical site infection

Surgical site infection is a serious complication of surgery and is usually associated with increased length of hospital stay for the patient, and also higher hospital costs. The use of an antiseptic solution for preoperative bathing or showering is widely practiced in the belief that it will help to prevent surgical site infections from developing. This review identified seven trials, with over 10,000 patients, that tested skin antiseptics (chlorhexidine solution) against normal soap or no presurgical washing. The review of these trials did not show clear evidence that the use of chlorhexidine solution before surgery was better than other wash products at preventing surgical site infections from developing after surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Irrigating solutions for use in root canal treatment of teeth

Root canal treatment may be carried out as an alternative to dental extraction on a tooth in which the nerve has been injured or has died. Root canal treatment is carried out because the offending canal is infected or the pulp severely inflamed. The aim of root canal treatment is to eliminate bacteria from, and prevent their further entry to the root canal system. The technique involves cleaning and removal of any remaining bacteria and nerve canal contents. Elimination of any remaining infection improves the chance of success, and irrigation of the canal with certain types of solutions during the procedure can be helpful in achieving this. A range of antiseptic and antibacterial irrigating solutions are available. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in a variety of strengths has been used by dentists for many years, but concerns have been raised about its toxicity and the occasional report of pain when higher concentrations are used. Chlorhexidine, an antimicrobial, has also been used in a variety of concentrations as either a solution or gel. Combinations of antibiotic and a detergent (MTAD) have been recently developed and are being used increasingly.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

What treatments can be used to prevent and treat alveolar osteitis (dry socket)?

Dry socket is a condition that sometimes arises when teeth have been extracted and is more likely to occur following extraction of wisdom teeth in the lower jaw. It is thought to be linked to the loss of some or all of the blood clot that forms at the bottom of a socket after a tooth is taken out, although other factors are probably also involved. Dry socket can be very painful for several days after an extraction and people with this condition can also experience bad breath. The condition can result in more visits to the dentist or dental hospital and other inconveniences such as time lost from work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treating all teeth (full mouth) within 24 hours for chronic gum disease (periodontitis) in adults

Long lasting (chronic) gum disease causes damage to the gums and soft tissue structures around teeth. This review seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of full‐mouth treatments carried out within 24 hours compared to the more conventional treatment of partial mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) usually done over a number of weeks. The treatments being reviewed are full‐mouth scaling (FMS) and full‐mouth disinfection (FMD). A secondary aim was to establish if there was a difference in effectiveness between FMS and FMD. This review updates our previous review published in 2008.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Gingivitis and periodontitis: Treatment of periodontitis: Cleaning, scaling, care

Advanced periodontitis can cause teeth to loosen and fall out. Treating the disease in a systematic way can usually stop periodontitis from getting worse. Good oral hygiene is absolutely essential for treatment success.Besides caring for teeth and gums, there are several different ways for dentists to prevent or treat periodontitis. Systematic treatment of periodontitis consists of the following steps:Improved oral hygiene and professional teeth-cleaningRemoving film and deposits below the gumline (subgingival scaling) and planing the roots of the teethConfirmation of treatment successSurgery with local anesthetic, if neededFollow-up careStatutory insurers in Germany will cover some of the costs involved in the systematic treatment of periodontitis, but a special request must be filed in advance. This should include a treatment and cost plan provided by your dentist. Your health insurer can let you know which services will be covered in your specific case.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 18, 2014

Dressings and securement for central venous catheters (CVCs)

A central venous catheter (CVC) is a tube that is inserted into a blood vessel to enable the delivery of liquid nutrition, blood, medicine or fluids (or a combination of these) to a person who is ill. If a CVC is in place the patient does not need to suffer repeated needle insertions when treatments are due, as tubes can be attached to the CVC, the required fluid pumped in, and then the tubes detached when appropriate.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Policies for replacing long‐term indwelling urinary catheters in adults

A urinary catheter is a tube that is inserted into the bladder from the end of the urethra to drain urine from the bladder. Usually, urinary catheters are only required for a few days, such as after an operation. However, there are some medical conditions that may require bladder drainage on a long‐term basis. There are many different ways to care for and maintain a long‐term urinary catheter. In this review we refer to these different care methods as health‐care 'policies'. Examples of policies that relate to the replacement of a long‐term catheter include: time between catheter replacements; use of antibiotics during replacement; use of cleaning solutions or lubricants during replacement; and personnel, environment and techniques used at replacement. This review aimed to identify which policies at the time of long‐term catheter replacement were most effective in improving patient care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Skin antisepsis for reducing central venous catheter‐related infections

We reviewed the evidence about whether using antiseptic treatments on people's skin helps reduce infections related to central venous catheters (CVCs).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator‐associated pneumonia

What are the effects of oral hygiene care on the incidence of ventilator‐associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs)? We aimed to summarise all the available appropriate research in order to identify evidence‐based care for these vulnerable patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Antimicrobial dressings attached to the central venous catheters in reducing catheter‐related infections in newborn infants

Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are small tubes inserted into the vein to give fluids, medication and intravenous nutrition to sick patients. The risks of CVCs are well‐known, and can cause infections, which may result in death or serious illnesses. Newborn infants are vulnerable, as they on the one hand require the CVCs to sustain life, and on the other hand are at high risks of the complications, due to their thin skin and poorly‐developed immune system.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Interventions for replacing missing teeth: maintaining and recovering soft tissue health around dental implants

Missing teeth can be replaced by dental implants. However, keeping the gums around the implants healthy is important, as they can be negatively affected by dental plaque and its induced inflammation. Prevention of this may include daily implant cleaning techniques by patients and regular cleaning by dental professionals. Antibacterial mouthrinses may help reduce plaque and bleeding around dental implants, but there is no evidence that powered toothbrushes are better than manual toothbrushes or that brushing with a certain gel or dentifrice is better than another. Among the professionally administered treatments there is no evidence that phosphoric acid is more effective than scaling and polishing, that chlorhexidine enclosed in the inner part of implants is superior to physiologic solution or that a topical antibiotic inserted submucosally is better than a chlorhexidine gel.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis

We reviewed the evidence about medical treatments for Acanthamoeba keratitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Umbilical cord antiseptics for preventing sepsis and death among newborns

The umbilical cord connects the baby and mother during pregnancy. The cord is cut after birth. The cord stump then dries and falls off, generally within five to 15 days. Infection of the umbilical cord stump (omphalitis), caused by skin bacteria, is a significant cause of illness and death in newborn babies in developing countries. This review evaluated all studies that assessed antiseptics applied topically to the umbilical cord to determine if they reduce the risk of cord infection and death. Thirty‐four randomised controlled studies were included involving 69,338 babies. There were 22 different interventions studied. The most commonly studied antiseptics in the included studies were 70% alcohol, triple dye and chlorhexidine. Three studies were conducted in community settings in developing countries; the remainder were conducted in hospital settings, mostly in developed countries. Studies conducted in community settings were large and contributed about 78% of all the participants included in this review. Hospital‐based studies were small and had limitations.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Preoperative skin antiseptic for prevention of surgical wound infections after clean surgery

Patients' skin at the operation site is routinely cleansed with antiseptic solutions in the operating theatre before surgical incisions are made. This skin cleansing with an antiseptic aims to reduce the microorganisms present on the skin and therefore reduce the risk that the surgical wound will become infected. It is not known whether one antiseptic treatment is better than any other(s) at preventing infection, so our team examined the evidence for antiseptic skin preparation prior to clean surgery (i.e. surgery that does not involve the breathing system, gut, genital or urinary tract or any part of the body with an existing infection) to see if there are differences between preoperative antiseptic treatments. Unfortunately there is very little good quality research around skin cleansing before surgery and we cannot say whether one antiseptic is better than another at preventing wound infections. More research is required to show whether one antiseptic is better than the others at preventing wound infection after clean surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

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