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Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults

To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D for prevention of mortality in healthy adults and adults in a stable phase of disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Vitamin D for improving bone density in children

Osteoporosis is a condition where bones are weak, brittle and break easily. The risk of osteoporosis and fractures (breaks) in later life depends on how much bone is built when a child and how much bone is lost when an adult. One way to prevent osteoporosis and fractures in later life is to build stronger bones when young. Vitamin D plays an important role in improving the body’s absorption of calcium from food, reducing losses of calcium from the body and getting calcium deposited into to bone to improve the quantity of bone developed. Therefore it is thought that if vitamin D levels in the body are low in childhood, less bone will be developed and that improving vitamin D levels by supplements would result in more bone being developed. Bone density is a major measure of bone strength and the amount of bone mineral present at different sites and so is used to measure the effects of interventions, like vitamin D supplementation, to improve bone health.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Vitamin D and related vitamin D compounds for preventing fractures resulting from osteoporosis in older people

Hip fractures and several other types of fractures are very common in post‐menopausal women and older men due to age‐related weakening of their bones (osteoporosis).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The use of regular vitamin D preparations for children and adults with cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis with pancreatic insufficiency can mean that fat‐soluble vitamins, such as vitamin D, are poorly absorbed. This can lead to vitamin deficiencies. Lack of vitamin D (vitamin D deficiency) can cause specific problems such as bone deformity and bone fractures. It may also be associated with poorer general and respiratory health. Therefore, people with cystic fibrosis are usually given regular vitamin D preparations from a very young age. However, excess vitamin D can also cause respiratory problems and problems with high calcium levels. The review contains six studies, however we could only analyse data from three of these studies. Three studies were only published as conference abstracts.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Dietary supplements for preventing postnatal depression

Postnatal depression is a common condition that affects women and may impact on their babies. Common symptoms of postnatal depression include fluctuations in mood, mood changes, suicidal ideation and preoccupation with infant well‐being ranging from over‐concern to frank delusions. There is currently not much evidence regarding interventions that might prevent or treat postnatal depression. A diet lacking in certain vitamins, minerals or other nutrients may cause postnatal depression in some women. Correcting this deficiency with dietary supplements might therefore prevent postnatal depression. Examples of possible dietary supplements aimed at preventing postnatal depression include omega‐3 fatty acids, iron, folate, s‐adenosyl‐L‐methionine, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), B6 (pyridoxine), B2 (riboflavin), vitamin D and calcium.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

Vitamin D is produced by the human body from exposure to sunlight and can also be consumed from foods such as fish‐liver oils, fatty fish, mushrooms, egg yolks, and liver. Vitamin D has many functions in the body; it helps maintain bone integrity and calcium homeostasis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of nutrition and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 20, 2016

Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems

Evidence from randomised controlled trials shows that calcium supplements help prevent pre‐eclampsia and preterm birth and lower the risk of a woman dying or having serious problems related to high blood pressure in pregnancy. This is particularly for women on low calcium diets.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Preventing osteoporosis

As people get older, it is normal for their bones to become weaker and their risk of fractures to increase somewhat. But in osteoporosis bones become less dense earlier and faster. Measures to prevent osteoporosis from developing can be particularly important for women and people with specific risk factors.Osteoporosis does not cause any symptoms at first. The first sign of osteoporosis is often a bone fracture – and by that point quite a lot of bone tissue has usually already broken down. Some people are at a greater risk of having brittle bones, including older post-menopausal women, men over the age of 65, and people who have a family history of osteoporosis or are overweight. Lack of exercise, smoking and the use of some medications play a role too.Not all risk factors can be influenced. But there are some things that you can do to help strengthen your bones:make sure that you get enough calcium and vitamin D,stay physically active – this will help prevent breakdown of bone tissue,do not smoke.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 9, 2014

Osteoporosis: Overview

Having weak bones that easily break is a sign of osteoporosis. It is normal for your bones to become less dense as you grow older, but osteoporosis speeds up this process. Osteoporosis can be a problem for older people because they also have a greater risk of falling.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 9, 2014

Vitamins and minerals for female subfertility

Review question: Do supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women (standard treatment includes folic acid < 1 mg).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the causes and management of nutritional problems that occur in patients with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 8, 2016

Anabolic steroids for improving recovery after hip fracture in older people

Hip fracture occurs mainly in older people, many of whom are frail. After surgery for their hip fracture, most patients suffer a loss of muscle mass and strength. Despite rehabilitation, most patients experience a long‐term decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. This review considers the evidence for the use of anabolic steroids aimed at improving outcomes after hip fracture in older people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

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Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

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