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This review included three trials with a total of 318 patients. A statistically significant decrease in the number of tender and swollen joints was found for patients taking cyclosporine when compared to those taking placebo. Significant improvements in pain and function were also found for those patients taking cyclosporine. More side effects occurred in the cyclosporine group compared to the placebo group.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of abatacept on rheumatoid arthritis. Although expensive, if supported by the overall body of evidence, the claims of their benefit upon both symptoms and radiographic progression, and their low rate of short term side effects make them of great interest to patients with RA.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

T‐shaped IUDs with copper on the arms are the most effective, have the longest duration of action and are the IUDs of choice.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Most parents know that it is important to be careful when going out in the sun with their children – at least in theory. But in practice, it is often a struggle to get children to put sunscreen on, play in the shade or wear a sun hat. We have put together some ideas that might help you make sun protection part of your everyday routine.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 26, 2015

Bisphosphonates give some relief from pain caused by cancer that has invaded bones. Patients with cancer that has spread to the bone frequently have pain. Pain control is an important part of cancer management. Bisphosphonates are medicines that affect the way bone develops, and are proving useful in treating patients with cancer that has invaded the bone (metastasis). This review looked at the effect of bisphosphonates on pain caused by bone metastases. Bisphosphonates do have some effect but are not as useful as either strong analgesics (such as morphine) or radiotherapy. However, where other methods of pain relief are inadequate, the addition of bisphosphonates can be beneficial. Bisphosphonates can cause nausea and vomiting.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of mycosis fungoides (including Sézary Syndrome).

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 7, 2017

Idelalisib (trade name: Zydelig) has been approved in Germany since September 2014 for the treatment of follicular lymphoma or chronic lymphatic leukemia.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 2, 2015

How do nasal corticosteroids compare in allergic rhinitis?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: October 1, 2010

Regional analgesia has been shown to be effective in providing pain relief in labour. Regional analgesia can be an epidural, a spinal or a combination of the two. An epidural is when the pain‐relieving drugs are injected into the part of the body which surrounds the spinal column (epidural space). It is most common for these drugs to be infused through a very fine tube (catheter) positioned in the epidural space. Traditionally, high concentrations of local anaesthetic drugs were used. These numbed the woman from the waist downwards giving pain relief for most women. However, it also caused leg weakness, poor mobility and difficulty for the mother giving birth. This led to increased instrumental vaginal births with subsequent increased bruising, pain and incontinence later on for the mother. More recently with epidurals, low‐dose local anaesthetic drugs have been used in combination with opioid drugs. Here there is less numbing of the woman's legs but the opioid drugs cross the placenta and may make the baby sleepy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy have an increased risk of infection mediated through a low number of protective white blood cells (neutropenia). Neutropenia is a common toxicity of many chemotherapy agents and is caused by the suppression of the bone marrow. The first sign of infection is usually a fever, which indicates a potentially life‐threatening condition if it occurs during severe neutropenia (febrile neutropenia (FN)). FN requires hospital care including the administration of intravenous antibiotics and possible delays in the continuation of chemotherapy. Colony‐stimulating factors (CSFs) are drugs administered during chemotherapy in order to prevent or reduce the incidence or duration of FN and neutropenia. This review included eight trials in which 2156 patients with breast cancer had randomly received CSFs or placebo or no treatment during chemotherapy. These trials were carried out between 1995 and 2008. Prophylactic treatment with CSFs significantly reduced the risk of developing FN by 73%. The estimated number of patients needed to be treated with CSFs in order to prevent one event of FN was 12. Although a significant decrease in mortality of all causes during chemotherapy and CSF therapy was noted, there was no reduction in infection‐related mortality. There was no significant effect observed that planned chemotherapy schedules could be better maintained if CSFs were administered or that the number of patients with neutropenia decreased with CSFs. Notably, CSFs significantly reduced the need for hospital care yet frequently caused short‐term adverse effects like bone pain and injection‐site reactions. There were several limitations in this analysis: only a few trials could be included, the number of patients was low in many of these trials, and disease stages and chemotherapy treatments varied considerably. Moreover, the trial authors defined their outcomes differently, making comparisons across studies difficult. Information on the primary and secondary outcomes could not be obtained from all trials and the overall reporting quality was low. Many studies were dated and hence the administration of CSFs did not comply with current recommendations. Overall, CSFs have shown moderate evidence of benefit in the prevention of FN in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The evidence that the administration of CSFs could reduce early mortality of all causes was weak and substantiates the need of further studies. There was no reduction in risk of infection‐related mortality with CSF treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC, the temporary blockage of arterial blood flow to one arm or one leg before surgery after induction of anaesthesia) in people undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without additional valve surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 5, 2017

Dementia and cognitive impairment are a global health concern which place a burden on patients and carers, and increase healthcare costs. Therefore, it is important to identify ways to prevent their occurrence. Previous research has suggested that withdrawal (stopping) of blood pressure lowering medicines might increase the blood flow to the brain and therefore prevent problems of memory and thinking in older age. In this review, we included clinical studies comparing the effects on memory and thinking of withdrawal of blood pressure lowering medicines versus continuation of these medicines.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence from clinical trials about the effects of drug treatments for inclusion body myositis (IBM). We did not include trials of exercise or management of swallowing difficulties, as these are subjects of other Cochrane reviews.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Many young people are living with HIV. Motivational interviewing is a specific way of counselling which has been shown to be beneficial in the general population. It helps people adopt better health behaviours. It is not certain whether it can help youth living with HIV. We found two trials with a total of 237 participants which we included in this review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Hepatitis is inflammatory injury of the liver. Alcohol is toxic to the liver, and too much alcohol can cause alcoholic hepatitis. The severe form of alcoholic hepatitis is life‐threatening. The use of pentoxifylline as a treatment for alcoholic hepatitis cannot be supported or rejected based on the best evidence available today. We found five randomised trials, which together included 336 participants; half received pentoxifylline, and the other half received placebo or no intervention. We performed this systematic review and statistical analyses but could not show firm evidence of beneficial effects of pentoxifylline on mortality or on complications of liver diseases in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline did appear to cause more serious and non‐serious side effects. In order to help decide whether pentoxifylline should be used to treat alcoholic hepatitis or not, we need well‐designed, well‐conducted, large randomised clinical trials, with short‐term (less than one month) and long‐term (more than one month) data on benefits and harms.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The best way to keep a newborn baby's intravenous line working is still unknown.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Treatment of children with rhabdomyosarcoma often includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. Learn about the signs, tests to diagnose, survival, treatment, and clinical trials for children with rhabdomyosarcoma in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 6, 2017

Labour before full term in pregnancy can lead to preterm birth of the baby. Preterm labour describes frequent uterine contractions (at least four in 20 minutes or eight in 60 minutes) and progressive changes in the cervix. If preterm labour is not managed properly, active labour can occur and result in preterm birth, before 37 completed weeks' gestation. Preterm birth is the leading cause of low birthweight, illness and death for newborn babies. Substances called prostaglandins play an important role in the contraction of the muscle of the womb and are important during labour and birth. They are produced by cyclo‐oxygenase (COX), which is an enzyme that increases the level of prostaglandins. Giving COX inhibitors to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour might stop contraction of the womb and allow them to reach full term. We included one small randomised trial (involving 98 women) that involved the drug rofecoxib, which is one type of COX inhibitor. The included study did not report any information about prevention of labour before full‐term pregnancy. However, use of this COX inhibitor was associated with an increased risk of the baby being born before full term. We found insufficient data to make any recommendation about using COX inhibitors for preventing preterm labour. Future research should include the follow‐up of babies to examine the short‐ and longer‐term effects associated with using COX inhibitors during pregnancy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with end‐stage renal disease (ESRD). Strategies to increase donor organ availability and to prolong the transplanted kidney's survival have become priorities in kidney transplantation. Standard immunosuppressive therapy consists of initial treatment and maintenance regimes to prevent rejection and short courses of more intensive immunosuppressive therapy to treat episodes of acute rejection. This review compared tacrolimus and cyclosporin used as primary immunosuppression for kidney transplant recipients. Thirty studies (4102 patients) were included. Tacrolimus was shown to be superior to cyclosporin in improving graft survival and preventing acute rejection after kidney transplantation, but increases post‐transplant diabetes, neurological and gastrointestinal side effects. There was insufficient information to assess the cost of tacrolimus versus cyclosporin, and there was a general failure to consider global quality of life (QOL) for transplant recipients which may inform our understanding of patient preference and compliance.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke. Half of those who suffer ICH die within one month of the event, and those who survive typically have profound loss of brain function and motor skills. Often, they are unable to resume normal activities of daily living (O'Collins 2006).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

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