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There is an international system for the classification of cancerous tumors. This helps to describe cancers and compare the results of medical tests and examinations. Doctors and researchers all use what is known as TNM classification.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 27, 2016

This Cochrane review has indicated that there are no randomised controlled trials to compare management options in this vital area, therefore trials should be undertaken as a matter of urgency. Current use of endotherapies in the care of patients with early cancer or high‐grade dysplasia of Barrett's oesophagus should be at the recommendation of the multi‐disciplinary team involved in individual care. Properly conducted randomised controlled trials comparing surgery with endotherapies should be conducted before any conclusions can be drawn.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Bacteria are normally present in the birth canal and are useful in maintaining the health of the vagina. However, if the numbers of some of the bacteria increase, this is called bacterial vaginosis. For some women, there are no symptoms but for others it may cause an unpleasant discharge and may cause some babies to be born too early. These babies can suffer from problems related to their immaturity both in the weeks following birth such as breathing difficulty, infection and bleeding within the brain as well as problems when growing up such as poor growth, chronic lung disease and delayed development.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

There is much debate on the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer. The aim of this review was to collect the available evidence and then to calculate how well EUS stages stomach cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Having weak bones that easily break is a sign of osteoporosis. It is normal for your bones to become less dense as you grow older, but osteoporosis speeds up this process. Osteoporosis can be a problem for older people because they also have a greater risk of falling.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 9, 2014

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 12, 2017

Lubeluzole is not effective in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. After a stroke, where a part of the brain suffers from reduced blood supply, an excess of chemicals known as excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters is produced. This excess can cause some brain cells to be damaged or to die (permanent cell damage is called cerebral infarction). Drugs which block the effects of these amino acids can protect against the cerebral infarct. The review focuses on the effects of lubeluzole, an inhibitor of excitatory amino acids. The review of trials did not find any benefit of lubeluzole in humans either to prevent death after acute ischaemic stroke or to reduce disability from it. Moreover, lubeluzole may cause heart‐conduction disorders.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Bladder and bowel control problems are common in women and men and many wear absorbent pads to contain urine and/or faecal leakage and to protect their clothes. In many countries people buy their own absorbent pads, but in some countries (and in institutions such as nursing homes) pads may be purchased and supplied by health services. There are four main designs of bodyworn absorbent products used for moderate‐heavy incontinence (i.e. urine or faecal loss that can be contained within a large absorbent pad): disposable pads (sometimes called insert pads) worn with stretch pants, disposable diapers (like babies' nappies), disposable T‐shaped diapers (like diapers with a waist‐band) and pull‐ups (like toddler training pants); there are also washable versions of these. In addition, disposable and washable underpads/bedpads and chairpads may be used, usually to provide 'back‐up' for bodyworn pads.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Just like other tissues and organs in our body, bones can be affected by medical conditions too. These include things like fractures, signs of wear and tear, inflammations and cancer. Injuries and fractures are common in younger people. As we grow older, diseases like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are more likely to develop. Various tests and examinations can be used to find out what is causing problems like pain or difficulties moving.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 9, 2014

Tinea capitis, or ringworm, is a fungal infection of the scalp caused mainly by two species of fungi called Trichophyton and Microsporum. It is common in children. Most fungal infections can be treated with antifungal creams applied directly to the skin (topical treatments). However, because the fungal infection is found at the root of the hair follicles, where topical treatments cannot reach, tinea capitis always requires medication administered by mouth so that the treatment spreads throughout the entire body (systemic treatments). There are several different types of antifungal medicines available.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 17, 2017

This summary will tell you about What localized prostate cancer is Common treatment options for localized prostate cancer (watchful waiting, active surveillance, surgery to remove the prostate gland, radiation therapy, and hormone treatment) What researchers found about how the treatments compare Possible side effects of the treatments Things to talk about with your doctor

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 21, 2016

Chawanpaiboon S, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Sangkomkamhang US, Dowswell T. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour for reducing adverse neonatal outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD010800. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010800.pub2.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) include any mixture of herbal compounds and decoction (the process by which herbs are boiled and remaining liquid used for health purposes), including the development of herbal formulae and injections, and capsules. Although CMH are used to counteract the side effects of chemotherapy (cancer treatment with chemical agents that are selectively destructive to malignant cells and tissues) in patients being treated for cancer, the evidence for their use for women with breast cancer has not been ascertained. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CMH in alleviating chemotherapy‐induced short term side effects for women either undergoing chemotherapy or having recently undergone chemotherapy. Short term side effects are those that occur during the course of the treatment and generally resolve within months of the completion of the therapy and affect up to 60% of patients.They include nausea and vomiting, mucositis (inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract from the mouth down to the anus caused by chemotherapy); neutropenia (a decrease in white blood cells caused by chemotherapy); myelosuppression (a condition in which bone marrow activity is decreased, resulting in fewer red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets), and fatigue (loss of energy and tirdness). This review found seven randomised studies involving 542 breast cancer patients addressing this question. These studies used six different herbal remedies to treat the side effects of chemotherapy, all used CMH plus chemotherapy as the intervention compared with chemotherapy alone. The results suggest that using Chinese herbs in conjunction with chemotherapy or CHM alone may be beneficial in terms of improvement in marrow suppression and Immune sytstem, and may improve overall state of quality of life. However, further trials are needed before the effects of TCM for people with breast cancer can be evaluated with any real confidence.There was no evidence of any harms of CMH.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 18, 2017

Acute poisoning with chlorophenoxy herbicides such as 2,4‐D and MCPA is reported world wide, potentially causing severe toxicity and death. Since there is no antidote for chlorophenoxy herbicides, treatments such as urinary alkalinisation have been used to increase the clearance of these poisons from the body. Although urinary alkalinisation was first trialled over 30 years ago, it is not currently used routinely for the treatment of patients with acute chlorophenoxy poisoning. This review looked for studies where this treatment had been given to poisoned patients. No studies of sufficient quality were identified and therefore routine use of this approach to treatment cannot be recommended. However, due to the poor outcomes in patients who present with severe toxicity it may have a role in addition to standard intensive care support. More research should be conducted.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of melanoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 16, 2017

T‐shaped IUDs with copper on the arms are the most effective, have the longest duration of action and are the IUDs of choice.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 28, 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 2, 2017

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