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Dosage intervals of amoxicillin for the treatment of acute middle ear infection

Acute middle ear infection (acute otitis media) is a very common disease in children and may cause pain and hearing loss. Delayed or ineffective treatment may lead to serious complications such as ear drum perforation, sensorineural hearing loss or the disease becoming chronic. Amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, is the most commonly used antibiotic for treating acute otitis media. Currently, a reduction in the dosing interval to one or two daily doses is being used, in preference to the conventional three or four daily doses, to aid compliance.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antibiotics prior to embryo transfer in ART

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) describes an assisted reproductive technology (ART) during which a woman undergoes ovarian stimulation, surgical retrieval of eggs, fertilisation of eggs outside of the body, and finally the transfer of resulting embryo(s) into the uterus by an embryo transfer (ET) procedure. During an ET, the embryo(s) is passed through the cervix by means of a catheter. Many variables affect the chance of pregnancy after ET, including embryo quality, uterine factors and the embryo transfer technique. High levels of bacteria and other organisms in the upper genital tract have a detrimental effect on pregnancy rate after ET. Administration of antibiotics prior to ET may reduce the growth of these organisms and improve the outcomes of IVF. This review considered the question of whether antibiotics given at any time prior to ET affect pregnancy rates and other important outcomes of IVF.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antibiotics to treat respiratory infections caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children

This review sought to answer the question of whether antibiotics are effective in the treatment of LRTIs caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Azithromycin for acute lower respiratory tract infections

We conducted this review to compare azithromycin with amoxycillin or amoxyclav in treating acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes

Certain antibiotics given to women whose waters have broken early will improve babies' health. Babies born too soon are more likely to suffer ill health in the early days and sometimes throughout life. Early labour and birth (before 37 weeks) may be due to undetected infection as well as the waters breaking early. The review of 22 trials, involving 6872 women and their babies, found that, in the short term, certain antibiotics given to women, when their waters break early, increase the time babies stay in the womb. They reduced infection, but did not save more babies. One antibiotic (co‐amoxiclav) increased the number of babies with a rare condition of inflammation of the bowel (necrotising enterocolitis). Although, in the longer term (at seven years of age) antibiotics seem to have little effect on the health of children, the short‐term advantages are such that we recommend antibiotics should be given routinely.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antibiotics for common respiratory infections with unclear causes and undifferentiated symptoms in children up to five years of age

Common upper ARIs are a large and varied groups of infections. They occur in any part of the upper respiratory system, last for up to seven days and have a wide variety of causes. They may lead to complications such as ear, throat and sinus infections. More common in pre‐school children, they are the most frequent reason for parents to seek medical assistance. Furthermore, they are responsible for 75% of the total prescribed antibiotics in high‐income countries. One possible rationale for prescribing antibiotics is the wish to prevent bacterial complications.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Are oral antibiotics as effective as a combination of injected and oral antibiotics for kidney infections in children?

Acute pyelonephritis refers to infection of the kidneys and is the most severe form of urinary tract infection (UTI). Acute pyelonephritis causes high fever, vomiting, stomach pain, irritability and poor feeding in infants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Interventions for children with ear discharge occurring at least two weeks following grommet placement

This review compares the effects and safety of interventions in children with grommets who develop ear discharge beyond the immediate postoperative period.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

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Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

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