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Salmonellosis (Salmonella Infection)

An infection caused by Salmonella bacteria. Most people develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. In most cases, the illness lasts four to seven days, and most people recover without treatment.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: Wikipedia)

About Salmonellosis (Salmonella Infection)

Salmonella is a bacteria that makes people sick. It was discovered by an American scientist named Dr. Salmon, and has been known to cause illness for over 125 years.

Most people infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps between 12 and 72 hours after infection. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most individuals recover without treatment.

In some cases, diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. In these patients, the Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites. In these cases, Salmonella can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. The elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to have a severe illness.

How Common is Salmonella Infection?

CDC estimates that approximately 1.2 million illnesses and approximately 450 deaths occur due to non-typhoidal Salmonella annually in the United States....Read more about Salmonellosis
CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Vaccines for preventing severe salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease

Salmonella organisms are probably second only to pneumococcus among bacterial causes of infection in people with sickle cell disease. Infection with these bacteria can lead to complications and reduce the quality of life of people with the disease and sometimes result in death. Immunization with salmonella vaccines is one of the interventions available to reduce infection by these bacteria. There are different types of vaccines available: the inactivated vaccines and the oral vaccines. We did not find any randomized controlled trials assessing these vaccines in people with sickle cell diseases. We therefore conclude that there is a need for a randomized controlled trial to assess the benefits and risks of the different types of vaccines to evaluate the potential for improving survival and decreasing mortality from salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease.

The accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests for detecting typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

Cochrane researchers assessed the accuracy of commercially‐available rapid diagnostic tests and their prototypes (including TUBEX, Typhidot, Typhidot‐M, Test‐it Typhoid, and other tests) for detecting typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever in people living in countries where the estimated number of individuals with the disease at any one time is greater than 10 per 100,000 population. If accurate, they could replace the current World Health Organization (WHO)‐recommended diagnostic test: culture (growing the bacteria that causes the infection from a patient’s blood or bone marrow).

Antibiotics for non‐typhoidal Salmonella diarrhoea

Non‐typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) can cause diarrhoea in people. In this review, we investigated the benefits and safety of antibiotics for treatment of NTS versus placebo or no antibiotic treatment. We found that in otherwise healthy people, treatment with antibiotics did not have any benefit over treatment with no antibiotics. Furthermore, treatment with antibiotics made it more likely that patients would continue to excrete the same organisms for up to one month after treatment. We are unable to comment on the use of antibiotics in very young people, very old people and people who are unable to fight off infection because the trials we identified did not include these patients.

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Summaries for consumers

Vaccines for preventing severe salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease

Salmonella organisms are probably second only to pneumococcus among bacterial causes of infection in people with sickle cell disease. Infection with these bacteria can lead to complications and reduce the quality of life of people with the disease and sometimes result in death. Immunization with salmonella vaccines is one of the interventions available to reduce infection by these bacteria. There are different types of vaccines available: the inactivated vaccines and the oral vaccines. We did not find any randomized controlled trials assessing these vaccines in people with sickle cell diseases. We therefore conclude that there is a need for a randomized controlled trial to assess the benefits and risks of the different types of vaccines to evaluate the potential for improving survival and decreasing mortality from salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease.

Acute infectious diarrhea: Common germs and routes of infection

In Germany, infectious diarrhea is most commonly caused by the norovirus. Infants and young children often have rotavirus infections as well. Viral infections are usually quite intense but short. Bacterial infectious diarrhea is also widespread in adults.Infections with the highly contagious norovirus or rotavirus typically start with sudden and severe symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting. These symptoms usually go away after a few days. Since 2013, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) has recommended that infants be vaccinated against the rotavirus.Bacterial infectious diarrhea is most often caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. Like viruses, bacteria such as Campylobacter or Salmonella can also be transmitted through direct contact with infected people or by touching contaminated objects.

The accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests for detecting typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

Cochrane researchers assessed the accuracy of commercially‐available rapid diagnostic tests and their prototypes (including TUBEX, Typhidot, Typhidot‐M, Test‐it Typhoid, and other tests) for detecting typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever in people living in countries where the estimated number of individuals with the disease at any one time is greater than 10 per 100,000 population. If accurate, they could replace the current World Health Organization (WHO)‐recommended diagnostic test: culture (growing the bacteria that causes the infection from a patient’s blood or bone marrow).

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Terms to know

Bacterial Infections
An acute infectious disorder caused by gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria.
Diarrhea
Frequent, loose, and watery bowel movements. Common causes include gastrointestinal infections, irritable bowel syndrome, medicines, and malabsorption.
Food Poisoning (Foodborne Illness)
An acute gastrointestinal infection caused by food that contains harmful bacteria or toxins. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills.
Reactive Arthritis
Joint inflammation that is a "reaction" to an infection in your body. Besides inflamed joints, reactive arthritis can have two other symptoms: red and inflamed eyes and an inflamed urinary tract. These symptoms may occur alone, together, or not at all.

More about Salmonellosis

Photo of an adult

Also called: Salmonella food poisoning, Salmonella enterocolitis

Other terms to know: See all 4
Bacterial Infections, Diarrhea, Food Poisoning (Foodborne Illness)

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