Home > Health A – Z > Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis

A potentially fatal build up of a blood protein in vital organs.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)

About Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is a rare disease that occurs when amyloid proteins are deposited in tissues and organs. Amyloid proteins are abnormal proteins that the body cannot break down and recycle, as it does with normal proteins. When amyloid proteins clump together, they form amyloid deposits. The buildup of these deposits damages a person's organs and tissues.

Amyloidosis can affect different organs and tissues in different people and can affect more than one organ at the same time. Amyloidosis most frequently affects the kidneys, heart, nervous system, liver, and digestive tract. The symptoms and severity of amyloidosis depend on the organs and tissues affected. NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Role of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in primary systemic amyloidosis: a systematic review

The authors concluded that autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation ddi not appear superior to conventional chemotherapy in improving overall survival in primary systemic amyloidosis; however, the evidence was weak and further research was needed. This was a generally well-conducted study. Given the poor quality of the available studies and high levels of statistical heterogeneity, the authors' caution is warranted.

Drug Class Review: Direct Renin Inhibitors, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: Final Report [Internet]

The renin-angiotensin system is a complex biologic system between the heart, brain, blood vessels, and kidneys that leads to the production of biologically active agents, including angiotensin I and II and aldosterone, which act together to impact a variety of bodily functions including blood vessel tone, sodium balance, and glomerular filtration pressure. The multiple and varied effects of these agents allows the renin-angiotensin system to play a wide role in the pathology of hypertension, cardiovascular health, and renal function. Our ability to begin to intervene upon the complex cycle of hormone and other biochemical agent production within the renin-angiotensin system began with the advent of the first orally active ACE-I (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), captopril, in 1981. AIIRAs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) were developed as an alternative to ACE-I, and block the interaction between angiotensin II and the angiotensin receptor. Losartan, the first commercially available AIIRA, was approved for clinical use in 1995. The goal of this report is to compare the effectiveness and harms between aliskiren and placebo and between AIIRAs and ACEIs in the treatment of diagnosed coronary heart disease, hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy.

Comparison of hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and acetate-free biofiltration for ESRD: systematic review

This review compared haemodialysis, haemofiltration, haemodiafiltration and acetate-free biofiltration for patients with end-stage renal disease. The authors concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine the most effective method of extracorporeal renal replacement. This was generally a well-conducted review and the authors' conclusions are likely to be robust.

See all (16)

Summaries for consumers

Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma).

Terms to know

Amino Acids
A chemical building block of proteins. There are 20 standard amino acids. A protein consists of a specific sequence of amino acids.
Organ
A part of the body that has a specific function, such as the lungs.
Proteins
A molecule made up of amino acids. Proteins are needed for the body to function properly. They are the basis of body structures, such as skin and hair, and of other substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies.
Tissue
A group of cells that act together to carry out a specific function in the body. Examples include muscle tissue, nervous system tissue (including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves), and connective tissue (including ligaments, tendons, bones, and fat). Organs are made up of tissues.

More about Amyloidosis

Photo of an adult

Other terms to know: See all 4
Amino Acids, Organ, Proteins

Keep up with systematic reviews on Amyloidosis:

Create RSS

PubMed Health Blog...

read all...