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Cholangitis

Irritated or infected bile ducts.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

There is insufficient evidence to support or refute D‐penicillamine for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

D‐penicillamine has been considered for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis due to its copper reducing and immunomodulatory potential. The only identified randomised clinical trial did not demonstrate any beneficial effect of D‐penicillamine on the course, complications, and survival of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. In addition, its use was associated with a number of adverse events. Therefore, we cannot recommend the use of D‐penicillamine outside randomised trials.

Insufficient evidence to support or refute glucocorticosteroids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic disease of intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts, characterised by chronic periductal inflammation and sclerosis of the ducts, which results in segmental stenoses of bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and, ultimately, liver cirrhosis. Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis are at higher risk of cholangiocarcinoma as well as of colonic neoplasia, since primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in more than 80% of patients. Several therapeutic modalities have been proposed for primary sclerosing cholangitis, like ursodeoxycholic acid, glucocorticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents, but none has been successful in reversing the process of the disease. To date, liver transplantation is the only definite therapeutic solution for patients with advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis with liver cirrhosis.

Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterised by progressive inflammation and scarring of liver bile ducts. Destruction of bile ducts leads to incidence of bile flow to the gut, resulting in the development of biliary cirrhosis and end‐stage liver disease. PSC is most common in young males and its aetiology is still not fully understood. The disease is usually classified as an autoimmune disorder, but other aetiological factors cannot be excluded. There is a strong association of PSC with inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis, which coexists in approximately 70% of patients. Besides its progressive and irreversible nature, PSC is also associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma, which contributes to an even higher morbidity and mortality of this disease.

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Summaries for consumers

There is insufficient evidence to support or refute D‐penicillamine for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

D‐penicillamine has been considered for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis due to its copper reducing and immunomodulatory potential. The only identified randomised clinical trial did not demonstrate any beneficial effect of D‐penicillamine on the course, complications, and survival of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. In addition, its use was associated with a number of adverse events. Therefore, we cannot recommend the use of D‐penicillamine outside randomised trials.

Insufficient evidence to support or refute glucocorticosteroids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic disease of intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts, characterised by chronic periductal inflammation and sclerosis of the ducts, which results in segmental stenoses of bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and, ultimately, liver cirrhosis. Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis are at higher risk of cholangiocarcinoma as well as of colonic neoplasia, since primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in more than 80% of patients. Several therapeutic modalities have been proposed for primary sclerosing cholangitis, like ursodeoxycholic acid, glucocorticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents, but none has been successful in reversing the process of the disease. To date, liver transplantation is the only definite therapeutic solution for patients with advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis with liver cirrhosis.

Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterised by progressive inflammation and scarring of liver bile ducts. Destruction of bile ducts leads to incidence of bile flow to the gut, resulting in the development of biliary cirrhosis and end‐stage liver disease. PSC is most common in young males and its aetiology is still not fully understood. The disease is usually classified as an autoimmune disorder, but other aetiological factors cannot be excluded. There is a strong association of PSC with inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis, which coexists in approximately 70% of patients. Besides its progressive and irreversible nature, PSC is also associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma, which contributes to an even higher morbidity and mortality of this disease.

See all (25)

More about Cholangitis

Photo of an adult woman

See Also: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Other terms to know:
Bile Ducts, Infection

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