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Thalamus

An area of the brain that helps process information from the senses and transmit it to other parts of the brain.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Cancer Institute)

Terms to know

Brain
The part of the central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium).
Brain Stem
The part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord.
Cerebellum
The portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem. The cerebellum controls balance for walking and standing, and other complex motor functions.
Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer. The cerebral cortex is gray matter.
Cerebral Ventricles (Brain Ventricles)
A series of interconnected, fluid-filled cavities found within the brain. These cavities are the ventricles of the brain, and the fluid is cerebrospinal fluid.
Cerebrum
The largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves, called the cerebral hemispheres. Areas within the cerebrum control muscle functions and also control speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning.
Corpus Callosum
A broad band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
Diencephalon (Interbrain)
The diencephalon is centrally located and is nearly surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres. It includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
Hypothalamus
The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.
Medulla Oblongata (Brain Medulla)
The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem. It is often referred to simply as the medulla. The medulla deals with the autonomic (involuntary) functions of breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
Meninges
The three thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord.
Mesencephalon (Midbrain)
The midbrain or mesencephalon is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Pituitary Gland
A pea-sized gland at the base of the brain that regulates the body's balance of hormones.
Pons
Part of the central nervous system, located at the base of the brain, between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It is part of the brain stem.
Skull
The skeleton of the head including the bones of the face and the bones enclosing the brain.
Spinal Cord
A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae (back bones). The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous system, and spinal cord nerves carry most messages between the brain and the rest of the body.

Terms to know

Brain
The part of the central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium)....
Brain Stem
The part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord....
Cerebellum
The portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem. The cerebellum cont...
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