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Exercise

Physical activity as practiced in recreation, amateur and professional sports, or planned activity to improve physical condition or health.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Institutes of Health)

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Exercise rehabilitation for breast and head and neck cancer survivors

Bibliographic details: McNeely M L.  Exercise rehabilitation for breast and head and neck cancer survivors. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta. 2007

Effects of exercise in adults with physical and cognitive disabilities – a meta-analysis

Bibliographic details: Chen MD.  Effects of exercise in adults with physical and cognitive disabilities - a meta-analysis. University of Illinois at Chicago PhD Dissertation 2011

Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes is mainly characterised by a reduced ability of the hormone insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in body fat and muscles (insulin resistance) combined with insufficient insulin secretion that leads to increased blood glucose levels. It has been shown that weight reduction and an increase in daily energy expenditure decreases insulin resistance. There are some factors that are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes: these are obesity, previous gestational diabetes, hypertension, family history of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia and some ethnical groups are more at risk. Persons with "prediabetes" are also at high risk: they have abnormal blood glucose levels but not in the range of diabetes. Prediabetes often precedes the development of type 2 diabetes. We searched for trials that intended to prevent the development diabetes type 2 in the above mentioned at risk groups. We assessed the effects of increased physical activity alone or in combination with dietary interventions on diabetes incidence and other outcomes.

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Summaries for consumers

Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes is mainly characterised by a reduced ability of the hormone insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in body fat and muscles (insulin resistance) combined with insufficient insulin secretion that leads to increased blood glucose levels. It has been shown that weight reduction and an increase in daily energy expenditure decreases insulin resistance. There are some factors that are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes: these are obesity, previous gestational diabetes, hypertension, family history of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia and some ethnical groups are more at risk. Persons with "prediabetes" are also at high risk: they have abnormal blood glucose levels but not in the range of diabetes. Prediabetes often precedes the development of type 2 diabetes. We searched for trials that intended to prevent the development diabetes type 2 in the above mentioned at risk groups. We assessed the effects of increased physical activity alone or in combination with dietary interventions on diabetes incidence and other outcomes.

Exercise for diabetic pregnant women

Insufficient information available to recommend or advise against diabetic pregnant women enrolling on exercise programs.

Inhaled corticosteroids compared to placebo for prevention of exercise induced bronchoconstriction

Exercise‐induced asthma (bronchoconstriction) can limit a person's exercise endurance and lead to people avoiding exercise. This systematic review found that inhaled corticosteroids taken regularly can reduce exercise induced asthma in both children and adults.

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Terms to know

Endurance Exercise
Endurance exercises are activities that increase your breathing and heart rate for an extended period of time.
Mind-Body Exercise
A form of exercise that combines body movement, mental focus, and controlled breathing to improve strength, balance, flexibility, and overall health. Examples of mind-body exercises are yoga, tai chi, and qigong.
Pilates
A physical fitness system developed by Joseph Pilates. Pilates called his method "contrology".
Resistance Training (Strength Training)
Strength exercises build muscle, and even very small changes in muscle strength can make a real difference in your ability to perform everyday activities like carrying groceries.
Weight-Bearing Exercise
Exercise that forces you to work against gravity, such as walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, playing tennis, dancing, and lifting weights. This type of exercise is best for strengthening bone.
Yoga
An ancient system of practices used to balance the mind and body through exercise, meditation (focusing thoughts), and control of breathing and emotions. Yoga is being studied as a way to relieve stress and treat sleep problems in cancer patients.

More about Exercise

Photo of an adult

Also called: Physical training

Other terms to know: See all 6
Endurance Exercise, Mind-Body Exercise, Pilates

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