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Tuberculin (By injection)

Used to test for tuberculosis (TB) infection.

What works?

Learn more about the effects of these drugs. The most reliable research is summed up for you in our featured article.

Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) is used in a skin test to help diagnose tuberculosis (TB) infection in persons at increased risk of developing active disease. Tuberculin skin test is done by injecting tuberculin PPD into the surface layer of the skin. If the test is positive, a reaction will be seen at and around the place of injection or puncture. If the test is given using an… Read more
Brand names include
Aplisol, Tubersol
Drug classes About this
Diagnostic Agent, Tuberculin

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Accurate diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in children, people who are immunocompromised or at risk from immunosuppression and recent arrivals from countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis: systematic review and economic evaluation

This study found that, given the current evidence, a negative tuberculin skin test (TST) (≥ 5 mm) followed by a QuantiFERON®-TB Gold-In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test for children, a negative QFT-GIT test followed by a TST (≥ 5 mm) test for the immunocompromised population and a TST (≥ 5 mm) test for recent arrivals were the most cost-effective strategies for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection that progresses to active tuberculosis.

Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) with isoniazid in people infected with HIV reduces their risk of developing active TB

Most people infected with tuberculosis (TB) never get TB symptoms. This is called latent TB. People infected with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of getting TB and about 30% of people with HIV who have latent TB will eventually get active TB. This results in an increase in the risk of earlier death. This update of the review of available clinical trials found that the risk of developing active TB was reduced when people infected with both HIV and TB used isoniazid. Isoniazid for latent TB is usually taken for six to 12 months, but more research is still needed to show optimal duration of treatment, the best treatment regime for people with HIV, and especially the best regimen in combination with HIV drugs.

Incentives and enablers for improving patient adherence to tuberculosis diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment

Cochrane researchers conducted a review of the effects of material (economic) incentives or enablers on the adherence and outcomes of patients being tested or treated for latent or active tuberculosis (TB). After searching up to 5 June 2015 for relevant trials, they included 12 randomized controlled trials in this Cochrane review.

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Summaries for consumers

Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) with isoniazid in people infected with HIV reduces their risk of developing active TB

Most people infected with tuberculosis (TB) never get TB symptoms. This is called latent TB. People infected with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of getting TB and about 30% of people with HIV who have latent TB will eventually get active TB. This results in an increase in the risk of earlier death. This update of the review of available clinical trials found that the risk of developing active TB was reduced when people infected with both HIV and TB used isoniazid. Isoniazid for latent TB is usually taken for six to 12 months, but more research is still needed to show optimal duration of treatment, the best treatment regime for people with HIV, and especially the best regimen in combination with HIV drugs.

Incentives and enablers for improving patient adherence to tuberculosis diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment

Cochrane researchers conducted a review of the effects of material (economic) incentives or enablers on the adherence and outcomes of patients being tested or treated for latent or active tuberculosis (TB). After searching up to 5 June 2015 for relevant trials, they included 12 randomized controlled trials in this Cochrane review.

The impact of tuberculosis preventive therapy on tuberculosis and death in HIV‐infected children

Tuberculosis (TB) is a common cause of severe lung disease and death in children infected with HIV, particularly those living in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence. Hence preventing TB infection and disease in HIV‐infected children is desirable and potentially an important major public health intervention. Isoniazid, a medication used in the treatment of TB, has been effectively used to prevent TB in HIV‐uninfected children exposed to TB. However, it is unclear what impact TB preventive therapy such as isoniazid has on the rate of TB or death if given to HIV‐infected children with and without exposure to TB. This review aimed to assess the impact of any TB preventive therapy on the rate of TB or death when given to HIV‐infected children. We found only one published randomised controlled trial investigating TB preventive therapy in HIV‐infected children. The trial showed a marked reduction in TB incidence and death in the group of children who received isoniazid as primary preventive therapy. Few adverse events occurred during the study and none were related to the isoniazid therapy. However there are currently no long‐term follow up data on the durability of the protective effect or possible long term adverse events. This trial was also unable to assess the impact of isoniazid prophylaxis on children receiving antiretroviral therapy. Further studies are needed to assess whether TB preventive therapy is of benefit in all HIV‐infected children irrespective of use of antiretroviral treatment; the optimal duration of preventive therapy or long term adverse effects.

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