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Toremifene Citrate (By mouth)

Treats metastatic (spreading) breast cancer in postmenopausal (no longer have menstrual periods) women with certain types of tumors.

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Brand names include
Fareston
Other forms
Oral route
Drug classes About this
Antiestrogen

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Toremifene versus tamoxifen for advanced breast cancer

Seven eligible studies were identified, all of which provided information on response to treatment (in 2061 patients), five on progression‐free survival (in 1436 patients) and four on overall survival (in 1374 patients). The trials were generally old (conducted between late 1980s and early 1990s) and were of modest quality.

Toremifene is an effective and safe alternative to tamoxifen in adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: results of four randomized trials

Compared to tamoxifen, the efficacy and side effects of toremifene in adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer were not very clear. This meta-analysis was conducted to give a more precise estimation of the efficacy and severe side effects of toremifene given in the adjuvant setting in comparison to tamoxifen. The electronic database PubMed was searched for randomized trials comparing toremifene with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapies. Four randomized trials published in three articles were eligible, including 1,890 pooled cases treated with toremifene and 1,857 cases treated with tamoxifen. Compared to patients in tamoxifen group, patients in toremifene group did not have a significantly different overall survival rate (risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-1.19, P = 0.994 for heterogeneity) or a disease-free survival (DFS) rate (RR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.17, P = 0.431 for heterogeneity) at the end of the follow-up time. The rates of thromboembolic events in toremifene group, including deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio (OR): 0.68, 95% CI: 0.40-1.17, P = 0.926 for heterogeneity), cerebrovascular accident (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.32-1.09, P = 0.438 for heterogeneity), and pulmonary embolism (OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.42-2.01, P = 0.618 for heterogeneity), were not significantly different from those in tamoxifen group. The rates of endometrial polyps and endometrial cancer between the two groups were almost the same. This meta-analysis suggested that toremifene was as effective as tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting for both perimenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients with similar severe adverse effects to tamoxifen. Toremifene was a convincing and safe change for tamoxifen in adjuvant endocrine therapy.

Effects of toremifene versus tamoxifen on breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis

Toremifene and tamoxifen are both selective estrogen receptor modulators used in the treatment of breast cancer patients. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to achieve a more precise evaluation of the effects of toremifene versus tamoxifen on breast cancer patients, including the efficacy and safety, and the effects on the uterus, lipids, and bone. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted using the electronic databases and reference lists to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared toremifene with tamoxifen for breast cancer patients. Two reviewers independently selected studies and abstracted data. Data were analyzed by Review Manager, version 5.0. Twenty-three trials (7242 patients) were included. For early stage breast cancer, toremifene was associated with higher 5-year survival rates (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.50), more vaginal discharge (OR 1. 32, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.73), a greater decrease in serum triglyceride levels (SMD -1.01, 95 % CI -1.89, -0.14), a smaller decrease in LDL cholesterol levels (SMD 0.45, 95 % CI 0.07, 0.84) and in bone mineral density in Ward's triangle (SMD -0.36, 95 % CI -0.71, -0.01), and a greater increase in HDL cholesterol levels (SMD 0.43, 95 % CI 0.08, 0.77) than tamoxifen. For advanced breast cancer patients, toremifene was associated with more vaginal bleeding (OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.80) and a greater decrease in serum triglyceride levels (SMD -1.15, 95 % CI -1.90, -0.39) than tamoxifen. Available evidence showed that toremifene could be an alternative option to tamoxifen for both early and advanced breast cancer patients. However, the methodological quality of the included studies was low. More rigorous RCTs are needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis in the future.

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Summaries for consumers

Toremifene versus tamoxifen for advanced breast cancer

Seven eligible studies were identified, all of which provided information on response to treatment (in 2061 patients), five on progression‐free survival (in 1436 patients) and four on overall survival (in 1374 patients). The trials were generally old (conducted between late 1980s and early 1990s) and were of modest quality.

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