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Ramipril (By mouth)

Treats high blood pressure and heart failure. May reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death. This medicine is an ACE inhibitor.

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Learn more about the effects of these drugs. The most reliable research is summed up for you in our featured article.

Ramipril is used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If it continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure. Lowering blood… Read more
Brand names include
Altace
Drug classes About this
Antihypertensive, Cardiovascular Agent, Renal Protective Agent

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Drug and nutritional treatment for McArdle disease

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of drug and nutritional treatment for McArdle disease.

Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on cancer risk

The renin-angiotensin system is an important mediator of tumor progression and metastasis. A recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials reported an increased risk of cancer with angiotensin receptor blockers. It is unknown whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may have a similar effect. Our primary objective was to determine the effect of ACE inhibitors on cancer occurrence and cancer death. Our secondary objective was to determine the effect of ACE inhibitors on occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers given previous concerns of increased risk. Systematic searches of SCOPUS (covering MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases) and the Food and Drug Administration official web site were conducted for all randomized controlled trials of ACE inhibitors. Trials with ≥1 year of follow-up and enrolling a minimum of 100 patients were included. Fourteen trials reported cancer data in 61,774 patients. This included 10 trials of 59,004 patients providing information on cancer occurrence, 7 trials of 37,515 patients for cancer death, and 5 trials including 23,291 patients for GI cancer. ACE inhibitor therapy did not have an effect on occurrence of cancer (I(2) 0%, risk ratio [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95 to 1.07, p = 0.78), cancer death (I(2) 0%, RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.13, p = 0.95), or GI cancer (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.35, p = 0.43). In conclusion, ACE inhibitors did not significantly increase or decrease occurrence of cancer or cancer death. There was also no significant difference in risk of GI cancer.

Drug Class Review: Direct Renin Inhibitors, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: Final Report [Internet]

The renin-angiotensin system is a complex biologic system between the heart, brain, blood vessels, and kidneys that leads to the production of biologically active agents, including angiotensin I and II and aldosterone, which act together to impact a variety of bodily functions including blood vessel tone, sodium balance, and glomerular filtration pressure. The multiple and varied effects of these agents allows the renin-angiotensin system to play a wide role in the pathology of hypertension, cardiovascular health, and renal function. Our ability to begin to intervene upon the complex cycle of hormone and other biochemical agent production within the renin-angiotensin system began with the advent of the first orally active ACE-I (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), captopril, in 1981. AIIRAs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) were developed as an alternative to ACE-I, and block the interaction between angiotensin II and the angiotensin receptor. Losartan, the first commercially available AIIRA, was approved for clinical use in 1995. The goal of this report is to compare the effectiveness and harms between aliskiren and placebo and between AIIRAs and ACEIs in the treatment of diagnosed coronary heart disease, hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy.

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Summaries for consumers

Drug and nutritional treatment for McArdle disease

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of drug and nutritional treatment for McArdle disease.

Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEIs, ARBs, and DRIs

You will learn what research says about three types of medicine for high blood pressure, how well they work, how they compare to each other, and their side effects. This information can help you talk with your doctor as you decide which ACEI, ARB, or DRI is best for you.

Angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin‐II receptor blockers for preserving residual kidney function in peritoneal dialysis patients

Residual kidney function plays a key role in the health and quality of life of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Better preservation of residual kidney function is associated with decreased mortality, even at 1 mL/min of residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is associated with a nearly 50% reduction in mortality rate. Two kinds of antihypertensive drugs, angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin‐II receptor blockers (ARBs), are frequently prescribed for PD patients (primarily to control hypertension or heart failure), and could provide significant cardiovascular benefit for ESKD patients. Nowadays, while ACEis and ARBs use is advocated in PD patients, the supporting evidence is still unclear. However studies have focused on heart protection rather than residual kidney function. The aim of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of ACEis and ARBs therapy for preserving residual kidney function in PD patients. Six studies (257 patients) were included (three ARB studies, one ACEi study and ACEi versus ARB studies). Long‐term use (12 months or more) of an ARB showed a significant benefit in preserving residual kidney function in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) patients compared with other antihypertensive drugs, although there was no significant benefit when an ARB were used for less than six months). One study showed that compared with other antihypertensive drugs, long‐term use of the ACEi ramipril showed a significant reduction in the decline of residual kidney function in patients on CAPD as well as anuria rate. While dizziness and cough are the main adverse events when an ACEi is used, only one study comparing an ARB with an ACEi reported this outcome and no significant difference between the two groups were found. While the use of an ARB or an ACEi may both be useful in preserving residual kidney function, the small number of studies and small number of patients enrolled means there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of an ACEi or an ARB as first line antihypertensive therapy in PD patients.

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