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Niacinamide (On the skin)

Reduces dryness, redness, or irritation of your skin caused by acne or acne medicines.

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Learn more about the effects of these drugs. The most reliable research is summed up for you in our featured article.

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Antiacne
Combinations including this drug

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Treatments for bullous pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease in the West. Incidence figures are not available for most parts of the world but BP appears to be rarer in the Far East. Bullous pemphigoid is usually a disease of the elderly but it can also affect younger people and children. Both sexes are similarly affected. While BP usually resolves within five years, there is a moderate death rate associated with the disease and its treatment. Oral corticosteroid drugs are the most common treatment, but may be associated with serious adverse effects, including some deaths. The most common adverse effects of oral steroids, include weight gain and high blood pressure. Long‐term use is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and decreased bone density. Topical steroids are also associated with adverse effects, such as thinning of the skin and easy bruising. The risk of experiencing adverse effects of topical steroids depends on the strength of the steroid, how long it is used for, which area of the body it is applied to, and the kind of skin problem; if a high‐strength, potent steroid is used, enough may be absorbed through the skin to cause adverse effects in the rest of the body.

Yttrium microsphere radioembolisation for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (that is, primary liver cancer) is the most common malignant tumour of the liver and the fifth most common malignant tumour worldwide. In the majority of people, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed at an advanced stage. For these people, treatment options include ablation therapy (which destroys the tumour), embolisation therapy (the use of substances to block or decrease the flow of blood through the hepatic artery to the tumour), radiotherapy, or sorafenib, which is a targeted therapy (a treatment that uses a substance to identify and attack cancer cells while avoiding normal cells). Yttrium microsphere radioembolisation involves the injection of very small spheres that have radioactive material attached to them into the blood supply of the tumour. The radioactivity is supposed to destroy the liver tumour without affecting other parts of the body.

Second-line treatments for the management of advanced renal cell carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVES: A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of second-line treatments for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which includes the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor axitinib.

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Summaries for consumers

Treatments for bullous pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease in the West. Incidence figures are not available for most parts of the world but BP appears to be rarer in the Far East. Bullous pemphigoid is usually a disease of the elderly but it can also affect younger people and children. Both sexes are similarly affected. While BP usually resolves within five years, there is a moderate death rate associated with the disease and its treatment. Oral corticosteroid drugs are the most common treatment, but may be associated with serious adverse effects, including some deaths. The most common adverse effects of oral steroids, include weight gain and high blood pressure. Long‐term use is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and decreased bone density. Topical steroids are also associated with adverse effects, such as thinning of the skin and easy bruising. The risk of experiencing adverse effects of topical steroids depends on the strength of the steroid, how long it is used for, which area of the body it is applied to, and the kind of skin problem; if a high‐strength, potent steroid is used, enough may be absorbed through the skin to cause adverse effects in the rest of the body.

Yttrium microsphere radioembolisation for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (that is, primary liver cancer) is the most common malignant tumour of the liver and the fifth most common malignant tumour worldwide. In the majority of people, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed at an advanced stage. For these people, treatment options include ablation therapy (which destroys the tumour), embolisation therapy (the use of substances to block or decrease the flow of blood through the hepatic artery to the tumour), radiotherapy, or sorafenib, which is a targeted therapy (a treatment that uses a substance to identify and attack cancer cells while avoiding normal cells). Yttrium microsphere radioembolisation involves the injection of very small spheres that have radioactive material attached to them into the blood supply of the tumour. The radioactivity is supposed to destroy the liver tumour without affecting other parts of the body.

Treatment of intermediate‐stage primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer) arises from the liver cells and is distinct from secondary liver cancer, arising from other parts of the body and spreading to the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma can be classified in many ways. One classification is by Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) group stage which classifies the cancer based on how long the person is expected to live (life expectancy). This classification is broadly based on the size of the cancer, number of cancers in the liver, how well the liver works, and whether one's activities are affected by the cancer. People with intermediate‐stage hepatocellular carcinoma have large, multiple cancers, but they do not have full‐blown liver failure. Cancer is confined to the liver, and there is no restriction of daily activities. There is significant uncertainty in the treatment of people with intermediate‐stage hepatocellular carcinoma. We sought to resolve this uncertainty by searching for existing studies on the topic. We included all randomised clinical trials (well‐designed clinical trials where people are randomly put into one of two or more treatment groups) whose results were reported to September 2016. We included only trials in which participants with intermediate‐stage hepatocellular carcinoma had not undergone liver transplantation previously. Apart from using standard Cochrane methods which allow comparison of only two treatments at a time (direct comparison), we planned to use an advanced method which allows comparison of the many different treatments that are individually compared in the trials (network meta‐analysis). However, because there was only one comparison, we could only use standard Cochrane methodology.

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