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Depression in children and teenagers

Last Update: January 12, 2017; Next update: 2019.

Children and teenagers feel sad, down or distressed from time to time. But if these feelings last longer and are stronger than usual, they might have depression. It is then especially important for them to have people who they can trust and open up to, to talk about how they are feeling.

Children and teenagers often have difficult issues to deal with, like trouble with their parents, bad grades at school, falling out with friends, feeling unhappy with themselves or their bodies, and being lovesick for the first time. Problems and tough situations can make them feel sad, down or distressed. That is completely normal. But depression is more than just being in a bad mood or having a bad day. It can become a serious illness.

Depression often has more than one cause. It usually comes from a combination of biological processes in the body, mental factors and events in a person's life. Although these factors can’t always be influenced, young people can learn how to cope better with the challenges in their life. This can also prevent depression.

What causes depression in young people?

About 5 out of 100 children and teenagers have symptoms that could be signs of depression. Depression is often caused by problems in the family, loss (of a parent, for instance), difficulties at school and social isolation. Young people also have a higher risk of depression if they

  • have relatives with depression or other serious mental illnesses,
  • have had depression or an anxiety disorder in the past,
  • have previously been exposed to violence or abuse,
  • have a very negative self-image.

Physical illnesses and the side effects of some medications can increase the likelihood of depression too.

How can depression be prevented?

Ideally, parents and other adults will help children develop a stable personality and cope with challenges. People with close, stable relationships are also less likely to get depression.

If a child becomes depressed, it is important that their friends and family realize this early on. Signs of depression may include no longer enjoying anything or wanting to do anything, and becoming very withdrawn.

As children grow older, they develop more strategies to deal with problems and difficult situations on their own. They learn these strategies through their own experiences as well as through their family and friends. But sometimes that isn’t enough. Professional help is then available.

Some places offer various programs and courses to help children or teenagers manage stress and deal with problems. These usually involve group sessions where they learn things like how to cope with stress and solve conflicts, and what they can do if they feel unhappy.

If a child or teenager is suffering from paralyzing sadness or even feels like they no longer want to live, it is important that they tell someone how they are feeling. Those who don’t dare tell their friends or parents can contact a doctor or psychotherapy practice. There are also doctors who have specialized in the treatment of mental health problems in children and teenagers.

Preventing depression in children and teenagers

In milder cases of depression, one option is to wait and see whether the symptoms get better without treatment. But it is important to be there for the child in the meantime, and to seek psychological help if needed.

Like depression in adults, depression in children and teenagers can be treated with antidepressants or psychological treatment such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Medication should be used with caution because it can have side effects. For instance, there is some evidence that certain kinds of antidepressants may increase the likelihood of teenagers having suicidal thoughts.

What else do young people do to cope with problems?

Many children and teenagers do sports or attend courses, for instance at a sports club, that combine physical, mental and often social elements too. This can help make them feel stronger emotionally. If a child or teenager doesn’t enjoy sports at school, it could be worth looking for sports activities and courses elsewhere, so he or she feels under less pressure to perform and can just enjoy the activity.

It isn’t uncommon for young people to keep a diary in which they try to make sense of their thoughts, worries and feelings and cope with them better. Some find comfort in a pet. Talking to other people and feeling close to them is particularly important for your emotional wellbeing, though.

Young people who have depression can make use of telephone helplines as well as information or counseling centers for families, children and teenagers. They can also contact pediatricians and psychotherapists for advice and support. Many schools have social workers, psychologists or counselors to talk to. Teenagers often look for information on the internet too, and chat with others in social networks and forums.

Learning how to cope with difficult feelings and situations is an important part of growing up. But it is never easy to deal with depression or an anxiety disorder. Even if a young person has already had depression in the past and got through it, the fear of getting depression again could be distressing. It is then important to know what you can do yourself and also where to find help if you need it.

Sources

  • Cipriani A, Zhou X, Del Giovane C, Hetrick SE, Qin B, Whittington, C et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants for major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a network meta-analysis. Lancet 2016; 388(10047): 881-890. [PubMed: 27289172]
  • Cox GR, Callahan P, Churchill R, Hunot V, Merry SN, Parker AG et al. Psychological therapies versus antidepressant medication, alone and in combination for depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; (11): CD008324. [PubMed: 23152255]
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik und Nervenheilkunde (DGPPN) u.a. Unipolare Depression. S3-Leitlinie/Nationale Versorgungsleitlinie. Version October 4, 2016. [PubMed: 26542154]
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie (DGKJP) u.a. Behandlung von depressiven Störungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. S3-Leitlinie. July 2013. (AWMF-Leitlinien; Volume 028-043).
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  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Depression in children and young people: identification and management. Clinical Guideline. September 2005.
  • Robert Koch-Institut (RKI). Depressive Erkrankungen. Berlin: RKI; 2010. (Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes; Volume 51).
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  • IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.

    Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. We do not offer individual consultations.

    Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.

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