Table 12Strength of evidence: Studies that evaluate pharmacological and food supplement interventions compared to inactive control and report on the adverse effect of sedation

Intervention GroupSpecifics# of Studies (n)Risk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecisionMagnitude of the Effect SMD Range (CI)SOE
Pharmacological
Drowsiness or excessive sleepiness
Anti-depressant vs. placebo290,113LowInconsistentDirectImpreciseN/AInsufficient
Neuro-transmitter Drugs (Baclofen, Alprazolam) vs. placebo228,119LowInconsistentDirectImpreciseN/AInsufficient

Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; n = number; SOE = strength of evidence; SMD = standard mean difference

From: Results

Cover of Evaluation and Treatment of Tinnitus: Comparative Effectiveness
Evaluation and Treatment of Tinnitus: Comparative Effectiveness [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 122.
Pichora-Fuller MK, Santaguida P, Hammill A, et al.

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