Table 34Summary of evidence about subgroups

Subgroup; InterventionsPTSD SymptomsDepression SymptomsQuality of LifeSOEa
Demographic groups: sex; CBT, CISDSex did not modify the effect of early interventions; 2 trials (N=157; N=77)129,134Sex did not modify the effect of early interventions; 1 trial (N=157)129No evidencePTSD symptoms; Low for no effect of sex

Depression symptoms or quality of life: insufficient
Type of trauma; PEModified PE reduced PTSD symptoms among survivors of sexual, but not physical, assault and not among MVA survivors; 1 trial (N=137)128No evidenceNo evidenceInsufficient
Psychiatric diagnosis: previous depression; DebriefingPrevious depression did not modify effect of debriefing; 1 trial (N=157)129Previous depression did not modify effect of debriefing; 1 trial (N=157)129No evidenceInsufficient
History of child abuseb; DebriefingHistory of child abuse did not modify effect of debriefing; 1 trial (N=157)129History of child abuse did not modify the effect of debriefing; 1 trial (N=157)129No evidenceInsufficient
Severity of exposure to traumab; Battlemind training, standard postdeployment briefingSeverity of combat exposure did not modify the effect of Battlemind training; 1 trial (n=2, 443)126No evidenceNo evidenceInsufficient
Baseline severity of distressb; Debriefing, self-help workbookInconsistent findings; 2 trials (N=49; N=236);120,131 one reported that high baseline arousal symptoms increased PTSD symptoms among those randomized to debriefing while the other reported that a self-help workbook reduced PTSD symptoms to a greater extent in those with high baseline PTSD symptom severityNo evidenceNo evidenceInsufficient

CBT = cognitive behavioral therapy; CISD = Critical Incident Stress Debriefing; MVA = motor vehicle accident; N = entire sample; n = subset of sample; PE= prolonged exposure therapy; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; SOE = strength of evidence

a

For more detailed information about the rationale for SOE grading, please refer to Appendix G.

b

Personal risk factor for PTSD.

From: Results

Cover of Interventions for the Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults After Exposure to Psychological Trauma
Interventions for the Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults After Exposure to Psychological Trauma [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 109.
Gartlehner G, Forneris CA, Brownley KA, et al.

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