Table 20Characteristics of included studies of other psychological interventions

StudyArm (N)Treatment Duration (Followup)Population Trauma TypeBaseline PTSD SeverityaMean Age (Y)% F% Non-whiteRisk of Bias
Ford et al., 2011122Trauma Affect Regulation (48)
PCT (53)
WL (45)
12 sessionsb (3 and 6 months)Female
Victimization or incarceration
61.9 to 68.73110059Medium
Gersons et al., 200021BEP (22)
WL (20)
16 weeks (3 months)Male and female police officers
Trauma type NR
Lindauer et al., 2005123BEP (12)
WL (12)
16 weeksMale and female
Schnyder et al., 2011124BEP (16)
MA (14)
16 weeks (6 months)cMale and female
73.4 to 78.64047NRMedium
Nijdam et al., 201248BEP (70)
EMDR (70)
16 weeksMale and female
72.8 to 79.9
Krakow et al., 2001121IRT (88)
WL (80)
3 sessions—2 sessions 1 week apart and 1 session 3 weeks later (3 and 6 months)Female
Sexual abuse/assault
79.6 to 81.93810021Medium
Cook et al., 2010120IRT (61)
PsychEd (63)
6 weeks (1, 3, and 6 months)Male
79.5 to 81.359058Medium
Neuner et al., 2008125NET (111)
Trauma Couns (111)
MG (no intervention) (55)
3 weeks (6 months)Male and female
Rwandan and Somalian refugees
21.3 to 26.7
Neuner et al., 2010126NET (16)
TAU (16)
Weekly or bi-weekly sessions (median 9)dMale and female
Asylum seekers
36.9 to 38.9
Neuner et al., 2004127NET (17)
Trauma Couns (14)
PsychEd (12)
3 to 4 weeks (4 and 12 months)Male and female
Sudanese refugees
19.5 to 25.2
Boden et al., 2012119SS (59)
TAU (58)
12 weeksMale
46.8 to 47.7
Hien et al., 2004117Total 107e
SS (unclear)
RPC (unclear)
SC (32)
12 weeksFemale
Mixed w/substance abuse disorders
70.4 to 73.93710063Medium
Hien et al., 2009118
Hien et al., 2012128
SS (176)
PsychEdf (177)
6 weeksFemale
61.6 to 64.23910054Medium
Zlotnick et al., 200933SS (27)
RPC (22)
6 to 8 weeks (3 and 6 months)Female
64.4 to 69.43510053Medium

BEP = brief eclectic psychotherapy; F = female; IRT = imagery rehearsal therapy; MA = minimal attention (inactive control group); MG = no-treatment monitoring group; N = total number randomized/assigned to intervention and control groups; NET = narrative exposure therapy; NR = not reported; PCT = present-centered therapy; PDS = Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; PsychEd = psychosocial education; RPC = relapse prevention condition; SC = standard care; SS = Seeking Safety; TAU = treatment as usual; trauma couns = trauma counseling; WL = waitlist; y = year


Data reported are mean CAPS total or range of mean CAPS total scores across groups unless otherwise specified.


Number of treatment sessions is reported when duration of treatment was not specified.


Only the BEP group had a follow-up assessment; the control group did not.


Treatment was terminated at the discretion of the therapist; range of 5–17 sessions provided.


The article did not report the numbers randomized to each group. It reported the numbers analyzed in each group (41, 34, and 32, respectively). It describes baseline data for 107 subjects analyzed. Of the 128 women who met full study eligibility criteria, 115 (90%) agreed to participate, and 96 of these women were randomly assigned to the two active treatment (SS and RPC). Thirty-two of the 128 women became the community care comparison group; they were not randomized to that group.


Psycho Ed in this study is “Women’s Health Education” (WHE).

Note: When mean data for baseline PTSD severity were not reported for the total sample but were presented for each study arm, we provide the range across arms.

From: Results

Cover of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 92.
Jonas DE, Cusack K, Forneris CA, et al.

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