Table 3Description of quality elements in GRADE for intervention studies

Quality elementDescription
LimitationsLimitations in the study design and implementation may bias the estimates of the treatment effect. Major limitations in studies decrease the confidence in the estimate of the effect.
InconsistencyInconsistency refers to an unexplained heterogeneity of results.
IndirectnessIndirectness refers to differences in study population, intervention, comparator and outcomes between the available evidence and the review question, or recommendation made.
ImprecisionResults are imprecise when studies include relatively few patients and few events and thus have wide confidence intervals around the estimate of the effect relative to the clinically important threshold.
Publication biasPublication bias is a systematic underestimate or an overestimate of the underlying beneficial or harmful effect due to the selective publication of studies.

From: 4, Methods

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Urinary Incontinence in Neurological Disease: Management of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Neurological Disease.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 148.
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).
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