Table 1Summary of studies included in the clinical evidence review

Bodner 1990214Asymptomatic patients with spinal cord injuryStandard routine radiology imaging study (excretory urography, computerised tomography (CT) or radiology performed and interpreted ultrasound)Office ultrasound (US study)Mean duration since injury 8.75 yrs
Calenoff 1982215Patients with spinal cord injuryUltrasoundExcretory urogram (IVP) and/or voiding cystourethrogramNot Reported
Gousse 2003216Patients with spinal cord injuryRoutine renal ultrasound

Frequency: Annual routine surveillance scan

Average of 2.95 paired study comparisons per patient
Renal nuclear scan

Data not reported
mean time elapsed since injury 23.9 yrs
Gupta 1994217Patients with spinal cord injuryRoutine radiological screeningNot applicable (na)Mean time since injury 2 months to 20 yrs
Lemack 2005218Patients with multiple sclerosis referred for lower urinary tract symptomsRenal ultrasoundNaNR
Macdiarmid 2000m219Patients with spinal cord injurySerum creatinine levelNaNR
Morcos 1988220Patients with spinal cord injuryRoutine renal ultrasoundIntravenous urographyMean duration of paralysis 10.5 yrs
Navon 1997230Patients with spinal cord injuryScreening with cystoscopyNo cystoscopy screening8+ years
Persun 1999221Adults with a history of lumbar myelomeningocele all of whom performed CIC and were dry between catheterisationsPatients with normal ultrasounds/creatinine

Ultrasound, serum creatinine
Sepahpanah 2006222Patients with spinal cord injury who had annual inpatient evaluations for 5 separate yearsAnnual evaluation including ultrasound and serum creatinineNaMean interval (SD) between the first and fifth test 5.57 yrs (2.13)
Sliwa 1996223Patients with multiple sclerosis with symptoms of neurogenic bladder dysfunctionUltrasoundNaNR
Tarcan 2001224Patients with myelodysplasiaRoutine ultrasoundNa(Age) Mean 9.1 yrs (SD 5.5 yrs)
(range 1 to 18.6 yrs)
Tins 2005225Patients with spinal cord injuryRoutine kidney, ureter and bladder radiographRoutine ultrasoundMean time since injury 11 yrs
Tsai 2001226Patients with spinal cord injuryIntravenous urography

Frequency: routine
Renal ultrasoundNR
Vaidyanathan 2006227Patients with spinal cord injuryUltrasound in spinal cord injury patients who had symptoms related to the urinary tract (passing purulent urine, temperature, rigors, passing blood in urine, severe kidney/bladder pain, recurrent urine infections)Ultrasound in spinal cord injury patients with no urinary symptoms when they underwent ultrasound examinationNR
Waites 1995228Patients with spinal cord injuryPatients who had missed two or more consecutive annual examinations

Patients underwent renal scintigraphic scanning
Patients who were compliant with routine annual examinations for the previous three consecutive years

Patients underwent renal scintigraphic scanning
Yang 1999229Spinal cord injury patients who were chronically catheterisedAnnual health maintenance evaluation to include cystoscopy on patients who were continuously catheterised for 10 more years, or were smokers and catheterised for 5 or more years.Na6 year period
(1992 to 1997)

From: 14, Monitoring and surveillance protocols

Cover of Urinary Incontinence in Neurological Disease
Urinary Incontinence in Neurological Disease: Management of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Neurological Disease.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 148.
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).
Copyright © 2012, National Clinical Guideline Centre.

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use.

The rights of National Clinical Guideline Centre to be identified as Author of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.