Table 8.9Evidence profile for surface swabs in babies about to start antibiotic treatment

Number of studiesNumber of babiesSensitivity (95% confidence interval)Specificity (95% confidence interval)Positive likelihood ratio (95% confidence interval)Negative likelihood ratio (95% confidence interval)Quality
Any two of skin, ear or pharynx swabs to detect early-onset infection at birth among babies born by caesarean section at < 34 weeks’ gestation, using diagnosis of clinical sepsis as reference standard
(Berger 2004)
(10 to 34)
(77 to 89)
(1 to 3)
(0.8 to 1.1)
Nose or ear swab to predict GBS infection in the first 2 days of life, using blood culture as reference standard
1 (Hall 1995)222193
(87 to 99)
(98.5 to 99.4)
(58 to 132)
(0.03 to 0.2)

See the complete GRADE Table J 8.9

From: 8, Investigations before starting antibiotics in the baby

Cover of Antibiotics for Early-Onset Neonatal Infection
Antibiotics for Early-Onset Neonatal Infection: Antibiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 149.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2012 Aug.
Copyright © 2012, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

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