Table 16Strength of evidence for opioids versus active agents

ComparisonOutcome (N Studies; N Patients)Strength of Evidence DomainsStrength of Evidence
Nalbuphine vs. nalbuphine + hydroxyzinePain intensity–VAS (1; 46)LowUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Butorphanol vs meperidine + hydroxyzinePain intensity–VAS (1; 41)HighUnknownDirectPreciseInsufficient
Nalbuphine vs hydoxyzinePain intensity–VAS 1; 47)LowUnknownDirectimpreciseInsufficient
Nalbuphine + hydroxyzine vs hydroxyzinePain intensity–VAS (1;47)LowUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Meperidine + dimenhydrinate vs methotri-meprazinePain intensity–VAS (1;40)HighUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Morphine vs dexamethasonePain intensity–VAS (1; 190)ModerateUnknownDirectPreciseInsufficient
Diclofenac vs. tramadolHeadache recurrence (48 hrs)LowUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficient

N = number; ROB = risk of bias; VAS = visual analogue scale

From: Results

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