C.5.3Studies excluded from the clinical review on BMD

Author, yearExclusion reason
Abrahamsen B, Vestergaard P, Rud B et al. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2006; 21(5):796–800. Ref ID: ABRAHAMSEN2006Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Ahlborg HG, Nguyen ND, Center JR et al. Incidence and risk factors for low trauma fractures in men with prostate cancer. Bone. 2008; 43(3):556–560. Ref ID: AHLBORG2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Akaberi S, Simonsen O, Lindergard B et al. Can DXA predict fractures in renal transplant patients? American Journal of Transplantation. 2008; 8(12):2647–2651. Ref ID: AKABERI2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Albertsson D et al. Hip and fragility fracture prediction by 4-item clinical risk score and mobile heel BMD: a women cohort study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010; 11(55) Ref ID: Albertsson2010Risk score (RR)
Albrand G, Munoz F, Sornay-Rendu E et al. Independent predictors of all osteoporosis-related fractures in healthy postmenopausal women: the OFELY study. Bone. 2003; 32(1):78–85. Ref ID: ALBRAND2003Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Atroshi I, Ahlander F, Billsten M et al. Low calcaneal bone mineral density and the risk of distal forearm fracture in women and men: a population-based case-control study. Bone. 2009; 45(4):789–793. Ref ID: ATROSHI2009Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Augat P, Fan B, Lane NE et al. Assessment of bone mineral at appendicular sites in females with fractures of the proximal femur. Bone. 1998; 22(4):395–402. Ref ID: AUGAT1998Case-control study
Azagra R, Roca G, Encabo G et al. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: Validation of the WHO FRAX tool in Spain. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2011; 12(30) Ref ID: AZAGRA2011Protocol
Bagger YZ, Tanko LB, Alexandersen P et al. The long-term predictive value of bone mineral density measurements for fracture risk is independent of the site of measurement and the age at diagnosis: results from the Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factors study. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(3):471–477. Ref ID: BAGGER2006APaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Bainbridge KE, Sowers M, Lin X et al. Risk factors for low bone mineral density and the 6-year rate of bone loss among premenopausal and perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15(6):439–446. Ref ID: BAINBRIDGE2004Did not report fracture risk as outcome
Banks E, Reeves GK, Beral V et al. Hip fracture incidence in relation to age, menopausal status, and age at menopause: prospective analysis. PLoS Medicine/Public Library of Science. 2009; 6(11):e1000181. Ref ID: BANKS2009Not relevant to review question (not BMD)
Barrett-Connor E, Siris ES, Wehren LE et al. Osteoporosis and fracture risk in women of different ethnic groups. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2005; 20 (2): 185–194. Ref ID: BARRETTCONNOR2005Index test not relevant to review protocol (peripheral DXA device)
Bauer DC, Gluer CC, Cauley JA et al. Broadband ultrasound attenuation predicts fractures strongly and independently of densitometry in older women. A prospective study. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Arch Intern Med. 1997; 157(6):629–634. Ref ID: BAUER1997Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Ben Sedrine W, Devogelaer JP, Kaufman JM et al. Evaluation of the simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimation (SCORE) in a sample of white women from Belgium. Bone. 2001; 29(4):374–380. Ref ID: BENSEDRINE2001Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Bensen R, Adachi JD, Papaioannou A et al. Evaluation of easily measured risk factors in the prediction of osteoporotic fractures. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2005; 6:47. Ref ID: BENSEN2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Berger C, Langsetmo L, Joseph L et al. Association between change in BMD and fragility fracture in women and men. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2009; 24(2):361–370. Ref ID: BERGER2009Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Bergot C, Bousson V, Meunier A et al. Hip fracture risk and proximal femur geometry from DXA scans. Osteoporos Int. 2002; 13(7):542–550. Ref ID: BERGOT2002Correlation only
Bessette L, Jean S, Davison S et al. Comparison of clinical risk factors for osteoporosis between subjects who sustained a traumatic or a fragility fracture. J Rheumatol. 2010; Conference(var.pagings):6–1280. Ref ID: BESSETTE2010Abstract
Bjarnason NH, Sarkar S, Duong T et al. Six and twelve month changes in bone turnover are related to reduction in vertebral fracture risk during 3 years of raloxifene treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12(11):922–930. Ref ID: BJARNASON2001Not relevant to review question (treatment response)
Black DM, Bouxsein ML, Marshall LM et al. Proximal femoral structure and the prediction of hip fracture in men: a large prospective study using QCT. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2008; 23(8):1326–1333. Ref ID: BLACK2008Replaced by Bauer 2007 (more fracture incidence)
Blaizot S, Delmas PD, Marchand F et al. Risk factors for peripheral fractures vary by age in older men--the prospective MINOS study. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(6):1755–1764. Ref ID: BLAIZOT2011BMD with other risk factors
Broe KE, Hannan MT, Kiely DK et al. Predicting fractures using bone mineral density: a prospective study of long- term care residents. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11(9):765–771. Ref ID: BROE2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Bruyere O, Varela AR, Adami S et al. Loss of hip bone mineral density over time is associated with spine and hip fracture incidence in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009; 24(11):707–712. Ref ID: BRUYERE2009Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Buist DS, LaCroix AZ, Manfredonia D et al. Identifying postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture in populations: a comparison of three strategies. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50(6):1031–1038. Ref ID: BUIST2002Not relevant to review question
Cadarette SM, McIsaac WJ, Hawker GA et al. The validity of decision rules for selecting women with primary osteoporosis for bone mineral density testing. Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15(5):361–366. Ref ID: CADARETTE2004Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Carroll J, Testa MA, Erat K et al. Modeling fracture risk using bone density, age, and years since menopause. Am J Prev Med. 1997; 13(6):447–452. Ref ID: CARROLL1997Cross-sectional study (Sen, spec)
Cauley JA, Hochberg MC, Lui LY et al. Long-term risk of incident vertebral fractures. JAMA. 2007; 298(23):2761–2767. Ref ID: CAULEY2007Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Cauley JA, Lui LY, Ensrud KE et al. Bone mineral density and the risk of incident nonspinal fractures in black and white women. JAMA. 2005; 293(17):2102–2108. Ref ID: CAULEY2005AAge-adjusted BMD
Cauley JA, Zmuda JM, Wisniewski SR et al. Bone mineral density and prevalent vertebral fractures in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15(1):32–37. Ref ID: CAULEY2004Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Center JR, Nguyen TV, Pocock NA et al. Volumetric bone density at the femoral neck as a common measure of hip fracture risk for men and women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004; 89(6):2776–2782. Ref ID: CENTER2004Replaced by Nguyen 2008 (Dubbo)
Cevei M, Stoicanescu D. Evaluation of osteoporotic fracture risk according to the risk factors. Archives of the Balkan Medical Union. 2009; 44(3):190–195. Ref ID: CEVEI2009Abstract
Chandler JM, Zimmerman SI, Girman CJ et al. Low bone mineral density and risk of fracture in white female nursing home residents. JAMA. 2000; 284(8):972–977. Ref ID: CHANDLER2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Chapurlat RD, Bauer DC, Nevitt M et al. Incidence and risk factors for a second hip fracture in elderly women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2003; 14(2):130–136. Ref ID: CHAPURLAT2003Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Chapurlat RD, Palermo L, Ramsay P et al. Risk of fracture among women who lose bone density during treatment with alendronate. The Fracture Intervention Trial. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(7):842–848. Ref ID: CHAPURLAT2005Not relevant to review question (treatment response)
Chen JS, Sambrook PN, Simpson JM et al. Risk factors for hip fracture among institutionalised older people. Age & Ageing. 2009; 38(4):429–434. Ref ID: CHEN2009ANot relevant to review question (not BMD)
Chen JS, Simpson JM, March LM et al. Risk factors for fracture following a fall among older people in residential care facilities in Australia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008; 56(11):2020–2026. Ref ID: CHEN2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Cheng S, Suominen H, Sakari-Rantala R et al. Calcaneal bone mineral density predicts fracture occurrence: a five- year follow-up study in elderly people. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1997; 12(7):1075–1082. Ref ID: CHENG1997CPaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Clayton RA, Gaston MS, Ralston SH et al. Association between decreased bone mineral density and severity of distal radial fractures. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume. 2009; 91(3):613–619. Ref ID: CLAYTON2009Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Cleghorn DB, Polley KJ, Bellon MJ et al. Fracture rates as a function of forearm mineral density in normal postmenopausal women: retrospective and prospective data. Calcif Tissue Int. 1991; 49(3):161–163. Ref ID: CLEGHORN1991Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Colon-Emeric CS, Lyles KW, Su G et al. Clinical risk factors for recurrent fracture after hip fracture: a prospective study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011; 88(5):425–431. Ref ID: COLONEMERIC2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Cook RB, Collins D, Tucker J et al. Comparison of questionnaire and quantitative ultrasound techniques as screening tools for DXA. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(12):1565–1575. Ref ID: COOK2005Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Cranney A, Jamal SA, Tsang JF et al. Low bone mineral density and fracture burden in postmenopausal women. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2007; 177(6):575–580. Ref ID: CRANNEY2007APaper did not report area under curve (fracture burden by measuring fracture rate)
Cummings SR, Black D. Bone mass measurements and risk of fracture in Caucasian women: a review of findings from prospective studies. [Review] [26 refs]. Am J Med. 1995; 98(2A):24S–28S. Ref ID: CUMMINGS1995Review
Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC et al. Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. JAMA. 1990; 263(5):665–668. Ref ID: CUMMINGS1990Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC et al. Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet. 1993; 341(8837):72–75. Ref ID: CUMMINGS1993Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Cummings SR, Cawthon PM, Ensrud KE et al. BMD and risk of hip and nonvertebral fractures in older men: a prospective study and comparison with older women. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2006; 21(10):1550–1556. Ref ID: CUMMINGS2006Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Damilakis J, Papadokostakis G, Perisinakis K et al. Hip fracture discrimination by the Achilles Insight QUS imaging device. Eur J Radiol. 2007; 63(1):59–62. Ref ID: DAMILAKIS2007Case-control study
Dargent-Molina P, Douchin MN, Cormier C et al. Use of clinical risk factors in elderly women with low bone mineral density to identify women at higher risk of hip fracture: The EPIDOS prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 2002; 13(7):593–599. Ref ID: DARGENTMOLINA2002Not relevant to review question
Dargent-Molina P, Piault S, Breart G et al. A comparison of different screening strategies to identify elderly women at high risk of hip fracture: results from the EPIDOS prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 2003; 14(12):969–977. Ref ID: DARGENTMOLINA2003Not relevant to review questionc
Dargent-Molina P, Piault S, Breart G et al. A triage strategy based on clinical risk factors for selecting elderly women for treatment or bone densitometry: the EPIDOS prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(8):898–906. Ref ID: DARGENTMOLINA2005Paper did not report area under curve
Dargent-Molina P, Piault S, Breart G. Identification of women at increased risk of osteoporosis: no need to use different screening tools at different ages. Maturitas. 2006; 54(1):55–64. Ref ID: DARGENT2006Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Dargent-Molina P, Schott AM, Hans D et al. Separate and combined value of bone mass and gait speed measurements in screening for hip fracture risk: results from the EPIDOS study. Epidemiologie de l’Osteoporose. Osteoporos Int. 1999; 9(2):188–192. Ref ID: DARGENTMOLINA1999Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Davis SR, Kirby C, Weekes A et al. Simplifying screening for osteoporosis in Australian primary care: The Prospective Screening for Osteoporosis; Australian Primary Care Evaluation of Clinical Tests (PROSPECT) study. Menopause. 2011; 18(1):53–59. Ref ID: DAVIS2011Not relevant to review question
De Laet CE, van Hout BA, Burger H et al. Bone density and risk of hip fracture in men and women: cross sectional analysis.[Erratum appears in BMJ 1997 Oct 11;315(7113):916]. BMJ. 1997; 315(7102):221–225. Ref ID: DELAET1997Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
De Laet CE, van Hout BA, Burger H et al. Hip fracture prediction in elderly men and women: validation in the Rotterdam study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1998; 13(10):1587–1593. Ref ID: DELAET1998Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
De LC, Kanis JA, Oden A et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(11):1330–1338. Ref ID: DELAET2005Not relevant to review question (meta-analysis)
Dequeker J, Tobing L, Rutten V et al. Relative risk factors for osteoporotic fracture: a pilot study of the MEDOS questionnaire. Clin Rheumatol. 1991; 10(1):49–53. Ref ID: DEQUEKER1991Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Di MM, Vallero F, Di MR et al. Type of hip fracture in patients with Parkinson disease is associated with femoral bone mineral density. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2008; 89(12):2297–2301. Ref ID: DIMONACO2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Diamond TH, Bucci J, Kersley JH et al. Osteoporosis and spinal fractures in men with prostate cancer: risk factors and effects of androgen deprivation therapy. J Urol. 2004; 172(2):529–532. Ref ID: DIAMOND2004Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Dincel VE, Sengelen M, Sepici V et al. The association of proximal femur geometry with hip fracture risk. Clin Anat. 2008; 21(6):575–580. Ref ID: DINCEL2008APaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Duan Y, Duboeuf F, Munoz F et al. The fracture risk index and bone mineral density as predictors of vertebral structural failure. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(1):54–60. Ref ID: DUAN2006Nested case-control study
Duboeuf F, Jergas M, Schott AM et al. A comparison of bone densitometry measurements of the central skeleton in post-menopausal women with and without vertebral fracture. Br J Radiol. 1995; 68(811):747–753. Ref ID: DUBOEUF1995Case-control study
Duppe H, Gardsell P, Johnell O et al. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and physical activity. A population-based study of 332 subjects aged 15–42 years. Acta Orthop Scand. 1997; 68(2):97–103. Ref ID: DUPPE1997Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Eklund F, Nordstrom A, Bjornstig U et al. Bone mass, size and previous fractures as predictors of prospective fractures in an osteoporotic referral population. Bone. 2009; 45(4):808–813. Ref ID: EKLUND2009Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
El Maghraoui A, Habbassi A, Ghazi M et al. Validation and comparative evaluation of four osteoporosis risk indexes in Moroccan menopausal women. Archives of Osteoporosis. 2006; 1(1–2):1–6. Ref ID: ELMAGHRAOUI2006Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
El Maghraoui A, Mounach A, Gassim S et al. Vertebral fracture assessment in healthy men: prevalence and risk factors. Bone. 2008; 43(3):544–548. Ref ID: ELMAGHRAOUI2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Ensrud KE, Lipschutz RC, Cauley JA et al. Body size and hip fracture risk in older women: a prospective study. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Am J Med. 1997; 103(4):274–280. Ref ID: ENSRUD1997Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
EPOS. The relationship between bone density and incident vertebral fracture in men and women. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2002; 17(12):2214–2221. Ref ID: EPOS2002Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Espallargues M, Sampietro-Colom L, Estrada MD et al. Identifying bone-mass-related risk factors for fracture to guide bone densitometry measurements: a systematic review of the literature. [Review] [176 refs]. Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12(10):811–822. Ref ID: ESPALLARGUES2001Review
Ettinger B et al. Simple computer model for calculating and reporting 5-year osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Journal of Women’s Health. 2005; 159–171. Ref ID: Ettinger2005Risk score (not AUC)
Faulkner KG, Cummings SR, Black D et al. Simple measurement of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1993; 8(10):1211–1217. Ref ID: FAULKNER1993Not AUC (OR)
Finigan J, Greenfield DM, Blumsohn A et al. Risk factors for vertebral and nonvertebral fracture over 10 years: a population-based study in women. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2008; 23(1):75–85. Ref ID: FINIGAN2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Formica CA, Nieves JW, Cosman F et al. Comparative assessment of bone mineral measurements using dual X- ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Osteoporos Int. 1998; 8(5):460–467. Ref ID: FORMICA1998Cross-sectional study
Fox KM, Cummings SR, Williams E et al. Femoral neck and intertrochanteric fractures have different risk factors: a prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11(12):1018–1023. Ref ID: FOX2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Frediani B, Acciai C, Falsetti P et al. Calcaneus ultrasonometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the evaluation of vertebral fracture risk. Calcif Tissue Int. 2006; 79(4):223–229. Ref ID: FREDIANI2006Case-control study
Fujiwara S, Hamaya E, Goto W et al. Vertebral fracture status and the World Health Organization risk factors for predicting osteoporotic fracture risk in Japan. Bone. 2011; 49(3):520–525. Ref ID: FUJIWARA2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Fujiwara S, Kasagi F, Masunari N et al. Fracture prediction from bone mineral density in Japanese men and women. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2003; 18(8):1547–1553. Ref ID: FUJIWARA2003Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Gardsell P, Johnell O, Nilsson BE. Predicting fractures in women by using forearm bone densitometry. Calcif Tissue Int. 1989; 44(4):235–242. Ref ID: GARDSELL1989Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Garnero P, Dargent-Molina P, Hans D et al. Do markers of bone resorption add to bone mineral density and ultrasonographic heel measurement for the prediction of hip fracture in elderly women? The EPIDOS prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 1998; 8(6):563–569. Ref ID: GARNERO1998Replaced by Hans 2004 (EPIDOS)
Geater S, Leelawattana R, Geater A. Validation of the OSTA index for discriminating between high and low probability of femoral neck and lumbar spine osteoporosis among Thai postmenopausal women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004; 87(11):1286–1292. Ref ID: GEATER2004Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Ghazi M, Mounach A, Nouijai A et al. Performance of the osteoporosis risk assessment tool in Moroccan men. Clin Rheumatol. 2007; 26(12):2037–2041. Ref ID: GHAZI2007Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Gluer CC, Eastell R, Reid DM et al. Association of five quantitative ultrasound devices and bone densitometry with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a population- based sample: the OPUS Study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2004; 19(5):782–793. Ref ID: GLUER2004Not AUC
Gluer MG, Minne HW, Gluer CC et al. Prospective identification of postmenopausal osteoporotic women at high vertebral fracture risk by radiography, bone densitometry, quantitative ultrasound, and laboratory findings: results from the PIOS study. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2005; 8(4):386–395. Ref ID: GLUER2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Gnudi S, Gualtieri G, Malavolta N. Simultaneous densitometry and quantitative bone sonography in the estimation of osteoporotic fracture risk. Br J Radiol. 1998; 71(846):625–629. Ref ID: GNUDI1998Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Gnudi S, Malavolta N, Lisi L et al. Bone mineral density and bone loss measured at the radius to predict the risk of nonspinal osteoporotic fracture. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2001; 16(6):1130–1135. Ref ID: GNUDI2001Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Gnudi S, Malavolta N. Comparison between T-score-based diagnosis of osteoporosis and specific skeletal site measurements: prognostic value for predicting fracture risk. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2003; 6(3):267–273. Ref ID: GNUDI2003Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Gnudi S, Ripamonti C, Malavolta N. Quantitative ultrasound and bone densitometry to evaluate the risk of nonspine fractures: a prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11(6):518–523. Ref ID: GNUDI2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Gnudi S, Sitta E. Clinical risk factor evaluation to defer postmenopausal women from bone mineral density measurement: An Italian study. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2009; 8(2):9–205. Ref ID: GNUDI2009Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Gomez AC, Diaz CM, Hawkins CF et al. Femoral bone mineral density, neck-shaft angle and mean femoral neck width as predictors of hip fracture in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11(8):714–720. Ref ID: GOMEZ2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Gonnelli S, Caffarelli C, Maggi S et al. Utility of QUS assessment in COPD patients treated with GCS: The EOLO study. Bone. 2009; Conference(var.pagings):S144–S145. Ref ID: GONNELLI2009Conference abstract
Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Gennari L et al. Quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the prediction of fragility fracture in men. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(8):963–968. Ref ID: GONNELLI2005Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Grados F, Fechtenbaum J, Flipon E et al. Radiographic methods for evaluating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. [Review] [61 refs]. Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme. 2009; 76(3):241–247. Ref ID: GRADOS2009Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Grampp S, Genant HK, Mathur A et al. Comparisons of noninvasive bone mineral measurements in assessing age-related loss, fracture discrimination, and diagnostic classification. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1997; 12(5):697–711. Ref ID: GRAMPP1997Cross-sectional study
Greenspan SL, Myers ER, Maitland LA et al. Fall severity and bone mineral density as risk factors for hip fracture in ambulatory elderly. JAMA. 1994; 271(2):128–133. Ref ID: GREENSPAN1994APaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Grgurevic A, Gledovic Z, Vujasinovic-Stupar N. Factors associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a case- control study of Belgrade women. Women & Health. 2010; 50(5):475–490. Ref ID: GRGUREVIC2010Not relevant to review question (not BMD)
Gronholz MJ. Prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis-related fracture: a multifactoral osteopathic approach. [Review] [90 refs]. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008; 108(10):575–585. Ref ID: GRONHOLZ2008Review
Gudmundsdottir SL, Oskarsdottir D, Indridason OS et al. Risk factors for bone loss in the hip of 75-year-old women: a 4-year follow-up study. Maturitas. 2010; 67(3):256–261. Ref ID: GUDMUNDSDOTTIR2010Did not report fracture as outcome
Hain SF. DXA scanning for osteoporosis. Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 2006; 6(3):254–258. Ref ID: HAIN2006Review
Hamdy RC. Fracture risk assessment in postmenopausal women. [Review]. Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. 2010; 11(4):229–236. Ref ID: HAMDY2010Review
Hawker GA, Jamal SA, Ridout R et al. A clinical prediction rule to identify premenopausal women with low bone mass. Osteoporos Int. 2002; 13(5):400–406. Ref ID: HAWKER2002Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Henry MJ, Pasco JA, Sanders KM et al. Fracture Risk (FRISK) Score: Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Radiology. 2006; 241(1):190–196. Ref ID: HENRY2006Risk score (cross-sectional and cohort study)
Hochberg MC, Ross PD, Black D et al. Larger increases in bone mineral density during alendronate therapy are associated with a lower risk of new vertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Arthritis Rheum. 1999; 42(6):1246–1254. Ref ID: HOCHBERG1999Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Hodsman AB, Leslie WD, Tsang JF et al. 10-year probability of recurrent fractures following wrist and other osteoporotic fractures in a large clinical cohort: an analysis from the Manitoba Bone Density Program. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(20):2261–2267. Ref ID: HODSMAN2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Holmberg AH, Johnell O, Nilsson PM et al. Risk factors for fragility fracture in middle age. A prospective population- based study of 33,000 men and women.[Erratum appears in Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(11):1704]. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(7):1065–1077. Ref ID: HOLMBERG2006Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Hongsdusit N, Von MD, Barrett-Connor E. A comparison between peripheral BMD and central BMD measurements in the prediction of spine fractures in men. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(6):872–877. Ref ID: HONGSDUSIT2006Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Huang C, Ross PD, Wasnich RD. Short-term and long-term fracture prediction by bone mass measurements: a prospective study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1998; 13(1):107–113. Ref ID: HUANG1998APaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Huang C, Ross PD, Yates AJ et al. Prediction of fracture risk by radiographic absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound: a prospective study. Calcif Tissue Int. 1998; 63(5):380–384. Ref ID: HUANG1998Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Hung LK, Wu HT, Leung PC et al. Low BMD is a risk factor for low-energy Colles’ fractures in women before and after menopause. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 2005;(435):219–225. Ref ID: HUNG2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Itoh S, Tomioka H, Tanaka J et al. Relationship between bone mineral density of the distal radius and ulna and fracture characteristics. Journal of Hand Surgery - American Volume. 2004; 29(1):123–130. Ref ID: ITOH2004Not relevant to review question
Jager PL, Jonkman S, Koolhaas W et al. Combined vertebral fracture assessment and bone mineral density measurement: a new standard in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in academic populations. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(4):1059–1068. Ref ID: JAGER2011Risk of osteoporosis as outcome, not fracture
Jagtap VR, Ganu JV, Nagane NS. BMD and serum intact osteocalcin in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2011; 26(1):70–73. Ref ID: JAGTAP2011Did not report fracture risk as outcome
Jergas M, Genant HK. Spinal and femoral DXA for the assessment of spinal osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int. 1997; 61(5):351–357. Ref ID: JERGAS1997ACase-control study
Jergas M, Gluer CC. Assessment of fracture risk by bone density measurements. [Review] [69 refs]. Semin Nucl Med. 1997; 27(3):261–275. Ref ID: JERGAS1997Review
Jitapunkul S, Yuktananandana P, Parkpian V. Risk factors of hip fracture among Thai female patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001; 84(11):1576–1581. Ref ID: JITAPUNKUL2001Not relevant to review question (not BMD)
Johnell O, Kanis JA, Black DM et al. Associations between baseline risk factors and vertebral fracture risk in the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2004; 19(5):764–772. Ref ID: JOHNELL2004Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Johnell O, Kanis JA, Oden A et al. Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures.[Erratum appears in J Bone Miner Res. 2007 May;22(5):774]. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2005; 20(7):1185–1194. Ref ID: JOHNELL2005BPaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Jokinen H, Pulkkinen P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S et al. Risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures; A 10-year follow-up study. Bone. 2009; Conference(var.pagings):S107. Ref ID: JOKINEN2009Conference abstract
Jokinen H, Pulkkinen P, Korpelainen J et al. Risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in elderly women: a population-based 10-year follow-up study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010; 87(1):44–51. Ref ID: JOKINEN2010Not relevant to review question (not BMD)
Kanis JA on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group. Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health-care level. Technical Report. WHO Collaborating Centre, University of Sheffield, UK.Did not report relevant data. (Gradient of risk per SD change in risk score for clinical risk factors, BMD and combination of the two, all adjusted for age)
Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A et al. The use of multiple sites for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(4):527–534. Ref ID: KANIS2006ARisk of osteoporosis as outcome
Kanis JA, Oden A, Johnell O et al. The use of clinical risk factors enhances the performance of BMD in the prediction of hip and osteoporotic fractures in men and women. [Review] [79 refs]. Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18(8):1033–1046. Ref ID: KANIS2007AReview
Kaptoge S, Armbrecht G, Felsenberg D et al. Whom to treat? The contribution of vertebral X-rays to risk-based algorithms for fracture prediction. Results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(9):1369–1381. Ref ID: KAPTOGE2006Not relevant to review question (model without BMD)
Kaptoge S, Benevolenskaya LI, Bhalla AK et al. Low BMD is less predictive than reported falls for future limb fractures in women across Europe: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study. Bone. 2005; 36(3):387–398. Ref ID: KAPTOGE2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Kiebzak GM, Binkley N, Lewiecki EM et al. Diagnostic agreement at the total hip using different DXA systems and the NHANES III database. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2007; 10(2):132–137. Ref ID: KIEBZAK2007Did not report fracture as outcome
Kim YM, Hyun NR, Shon HS et al. Assessment of clinical risk factors to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures in Korean women. Calcif Tissue Int. 2008; 83(6):380–387. Ref ID: KIM2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Kroger H, Huopio J, Honkanen R et al. Prediction of fracture risk using axial bone mineral density in a perimenopausal population: a prospective study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1995; 10(2):302–306. Ref ID: KROGER1995Not AUC (OR)
Kumagai S, Kawano S, Atsumi T et al. Vertebral fracture and bone mineral density in women receiving high dose glucocorticoids for treatment of autoimmune diseases.[Erratum appears in J Rheumatol. 2005 Jul;32(7):1414 Note: Kanai, Yoshiki [corrected to Kanai, Yoshinori]]. J Rheumatol. 2005; 32(5):863–869. Ref ID: KUMAGAI2005Cross-sectional study
Kung AW, Lee KK, Ho AY et al. Ten-year risk of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal Chinese women according to clinical risk factors and BMD T- scores: a prospective study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2007; 22(7):1080–1087. Ref ID: KUNG2007Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
LaFleur J, McAdam-Marx C, Alder SS et al. Clinical risk factors for fracture among postmenopausal patients at risk for fracture: a historical cohort study using electronic medical record data. Journal of Bone & Mineral Metabolism. 2011; 29(2):193–200. Ref ID: LAFLEUR2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
LaFleur J, McAdam-Marx C, Kirkness C et al. Clinical risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: a review of the recent literature. [Review] [93 refs]. Ann Pharmacother. 2008; 42(3):375–386. Ref ID: LAFLEUR2008Review
Langsetmo L, Hanley DA, Kreiger N et al. Geographic variation of bone mineral density and selected risk factors for prediction of incident fracture among Canadians 50 and older. Bone. 2008; 43(4):672–678. Ref ID: LANGSETMO2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Langsetmo L, Morin S, Kovacs CS et al. Determining whether women with osteopenic bone mineral density have low, moderate, or high clinical fracture risk. Menopause. 2010; 17(5):1010–1016. Ref ID: LANGSETMO2010BMD with other risk factors (age)
Lee SH, Dargent-Molina P, Breart G et al. Risk factors for fractures of the proximal humerus: results from the EPIDOS prospective study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2002; 17(5):817–825. Ref ID: LEE2002APaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Lee SH, Khang YH, Lim KH et al. Clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture: a population-based prospective cohort study in Korea. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2010; 25(2):369–378. Ref ID: LEE2010BNot relevant to review question (not BMD)
Legrand E, Chappard D, Pascaretti C et al. Bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in men. Osteoporos Int. 1999; 10(4):265–270. Ref ID: LEGRAND1999Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Legrand E, Chappard D, Pascaretti C et al. Trabecular bone microarchitecture, bone mineral density, and vertebral fractures in male osteoporosis. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2000; 15(1):13–19. Ref ID: LEGRAND2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Leslie WD, Lix LM, Manitoba Bone Density Program. Absolute fracture risk assessment using lumbar spine and femoral neck bone density measurements: derivation and validation of a hybrid system. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2011; 26(3):460–467. Ref ID: LESLIE2011BNot relevant to review question (not BMD alone)
Leslie WD, Lix LM, Manitoba Bone Density Program. Simplified 10-year absolute fracture risk assessment: a comparison of men and women. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2010; 13(2):141–146. Ref ID: LESLIE2010Not relevant to review question
Leslie WD, Lix LM, Tsang JF et al. Single-site vs multisite bone density measurement for fracture prediction. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167(15):1641–1647. Ref ID: LESLIE2007Replaced by Leslie 2007a (Manitoba)
Leslie WD, Pahlavan PS, Roe EB et al. Bone density and fragility fractures in patients with developmental disabilities. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20(3):379–383. Ref ID: LESLIE2009ACross-sectional study
Leslie WD, Anderson WA, Metge CJ, Manness LJ, Maximizing Osteoporosis Management in Manitoba Steering Committee. Clinical risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal Canadian women: a population-based prevalence study. Bone. 2007; 40(4):991–996Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Leslie WD, Tsang JF, Caetano PA et al. Number of osteoporotic sites and fracture risk assessment: a cohort study from the Manitoba Bone Density Program. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2007; 22(3):476–483. Ref ID: LESLIE2007CPaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Leslie WD, Tsang JF, Lix LM. Effect of total hip bone area on osteoporosis diagnosis and fractures. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2008; 23(9):1468–1476. Ref ID: LESLIE2008AReplaced by Leslie 2007a
Lespessailles E, Poupon S, Adriambelosoa N et al. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: is the bone density decrease the only explanation? Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme. 2000; 67(2):119–126. Ref ID: LESPESSAILLES2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Lewis CE, Ewing SK, Taylor BC et al. Predictors of non- spine fracture in elderly men: the MrOS study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2007; 22(2):211–219. Ref ID: LEWIS2007Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Lillholm M, Ghosh A, Pettersen PC et al. Vertebral fracture risk (VFR) score for fracture prediction in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(7):2119–2128. Ref ID: LILLHOLM2011Case-control study
Link TM, Vieth V, Matheis J et al. Bone structure of the distal radius and the calcaneus vs BMD of the spine and proximal femur in the prediction of osteoporotic spine fractures. Eur Radiol. 2002; 12(2):401–408. Ref ID: LINK2002Case-control study
Lo JC, Pressman AR, Chandra M et al. Fracture risk tool validation in an integrated healthcare delivery system. Am J Manag Care. 2011; 17(3):188–194. Ref ID: LO2011Not relevant to review question (not BMD alone)
Lopes JB, Danilevicius CF, Takayama L et al. Prevalence and risk factors of radiographic vertebral fracture in Brazilian community-dwelling elderly. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(2):711–719. Ref ID: LOPES2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Lopez AM, Pena MA, Hernandez R et al. Fracture risk in patients with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(6):707–711. Ref ID: LOPEZ2005Not relevant to review question (not BMD)
Lynn HS, Woo J, Leung PC et al. An evaluation of osteoporosis screening tools for the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19(7):1087–1092. Ref ID: LYNN2008Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Machado P, da Silva JA. Performance of decision algorithms for the identification of low bone mineral density in Portuguese postmenopausal women. Acta Reumatologica Portuguesa. 2008; 33(3):314–328. Ref ID: MACHADO2008Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Mackey DC, Eby JG, Harris F et al. Prediction of clinical non-spine fractures in older black and white men and women with volumetric BMD of the spine and areal BMD of the hip: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study*. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2007; 22(12):1862–1868. Ref ID: MACKEY2007Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Marcus R, Wang O, Satterwhite J et al. The skeletal response to teriparatide is largely independent of age, initial bone mineral density, and prevalent vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2003; 18(1):18–23. Ref ID: MARCUS2003Not relevant to review question (treatment response)
Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H. Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ. 1996; 312(7041):1254–1259. Ref ID: MARSHALL1996Meta-analysis
Mayhew P, Kaptoge S, Loveridge N et al. Discrimination between cases of hip fracture and controls is improved by hip structural analysis compared to areal bone mineral density. An ex vivo study of the femoral neck. Bone. 2004; 34(2):352–361. Ref ID: MAYHEW2004Case-control study
McCloskey EV, Vasireddy S, Threlkeld J et al. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) with a densitometer predicts future fractures in elderly women unselected for osteoporosis. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2008; 23(10):1561–1568. Ref ID: MCCLOSKEY2008Not relevant to review question–not BMD
Melamed A, Vittinghoff E, Sriram U et al. BMD reference standards among South Asians in the United States. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2010; 13(4):379–384. Ref ID: MELAMED2010Not relevant to review question
Melton LJ, III, Atkinson EJ, O’Fallon WM et al. Long-term fracture prediction by bone mineral assessed at different skeletal sites. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1993; 8(10):1227–1233. Ref ID: MELTON1993Not AUC (RR)
Melton LJ, III, Beck TJ, Amin S et al. Contributions of bone density and structure to fracture risk assessment in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(5):460–467. Ref ID: MELTON2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Melton LJ, III, Christen D, Riggs BL et al. Assessing forearm fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21(7):1161–1169. Ref ID: MELTON2010Case-control study
Melton LJ, III, Crowson CS, O’Fallon WM et al. Relative contributions of bone density, bone turnover, and clinical risk factors to long-term fracture prediction. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2003; 18(2):312–318. Ref ID: MELTON2003Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Miller PD, Barlas S, Brenneman SK et al. An approach to identifying osteopenic women at increased short-term risk of fracture. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164(10):1113–1120. Ref ID: MILLER2004Descriptive study
Miller RG, Segal JB, Ashar BH et al. High prevalence and correlates of low bone mineral density in young adults with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2006; 81(4):236–241. Ref ID: MILLER2006Not relevant to review question
Moayyeri A, Kaptoge S, Dalzell N et al. Is QUS or DXA better for predicting the 10-year absolute risk of fracture? Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2009; 24(7):1319–1325. Ref ID: MOAYYERI2009Not relevant to review question (not BMD alone)
Morden NE, Sullivan SD, Bartle B et al. Skeletal health in men with chronic lung disease: rates of testing, treatment, and fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(6):1855–1862. Ref ID: MORDEN2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Morin S, Tsang JF, Leslie WD. Weight and body mass index predict bone mineral density and fractures in women aged 40 to 59 years. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20(3):363–370. Ref ID: MORIN2009Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Morse LR, Geller A, Battaglino RA et al. Barriers to providing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry services to individuals with spinal cord injury. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2009; 88(1):57–60. Ref ID: MORSE2009Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Mussolino ME, Looker AC, Madans JH et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in white men: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 1998; 13(6):918–924. Ref ID: MUSSOLINO1998Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Nahas EA, Kawakami MS, Nahas-Neto J et al. Assessment of risk factors for low bone mineral density in Brazilian postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2011; 14(2):220–227. Ref ID: NAHAS2011Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Nakaoka D, Sugimoto T, Kaji H et al. Determinants of bone mineral density and spinal fracture risk in postmenopausal Japanese women. Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12(7):548–554. Ref ID: NAKAOKA2001Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Naves M, Diaz-Lopez JB, Gomez C et al. Prevalence of osteoporosis in men and determinants of changes in bone mass in a non-selected Spanish population. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(6):603–609. Ref ID: NAVES2005ANot relevant to review question (did not report fracture risk as outcome)
Neumann T, Samann A, Lodes S et al. Glycaemic control is positively associated with prevalent fractures but not with bone mineral density in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011; 28(7):872–875. Ref ID: NEUMANN2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Nevitt MC, Johnell O, Black DM et al. Bone mineral density predicts non-spine fractures in very elderly women. Osteoporos Int. 1994; 4(6):325–331. Ref ID: NEVITT1994BPaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Nguyen ND, Frost SA, Center JR et al. Development of a nomogram for individualizing hip fracture risk in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18(8):1109–1117. Ref ID: NGUYEN2007Risk score
Nguyen ND, Pongchaiyakul C, Center JR et al. Identification of high-risk individuals for hip fracture: a 14-year prospective study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2005; 20(11):1921–1928. Ref ID: NGUYEN2005APaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Nguyen T, Sambrook P, Kelly P et al. Prediction of osteoporotic fractures by postural instability and bone density. BMJ. 1993; 307(6912):1111–1115. Ref ID: NGUYEN1993Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Nguyen TV, Center JR, Pocock NA et al. Limited utility of clinical indices for the prediction of symptomatic fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15(1):49–55. Ref ID: NGUYEN2004Risk score
Nguyen TV, Eisman JA, Kelly PJ et al. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men. Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 144(3):255–263. Ref ID: NGUYEN1996Paper reported BMD as outcome
Nordstrom P, Eklund F, Bjornstig U et al. Do Both Areal BMD and Injurious Falls Explain the Higher Incidence of Fractures in Women than in Men? Calcif Tissue Int. 2011; 89(3):203–210. Ref ID: NORDSTROM2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Nyquist F, Gardsell P, Sernbo I et al. Assessment of sex hormones and bone mineral density in relation to occurrence of fracture in men: a prospective population-based study. Bone. 1998; 22(2):147–151. Ref ID: NYQUIST1998Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Ofluoglu D, Gunduz OH, Bekirolu N et al. A method for determining the grade of osteoporosis based on risk factors in postmenopausal women. Clin Rheumatol. 2005; 24(6):606–611. Ref ID: OFLUOGLU2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Oyen J, Brudvik C, Gjesdal CG et al. Osteoporosis as a risk factor for distal radial fractures: a case-control study. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume. 2011; 93(4):348–356. Ref ID: OYEN2011BPaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Oyen J, Rohde G, Hochberg M et al. Low bone mineral density is a significant risk factor for low-energy distal radius fractures in middle-aged and elderly men: a case-control study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2011; 12(67) Ref ID: OYEN2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Pande I, O’Neill TW, Pritchard C et al. Bone mineral density, hip axis length and risk of hip fracture in men: results from the Cornwall Hip Fracture Study. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11(10):866–870. Ref ID: PANDE2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Papaioannou A, Joseph L, Ioannidis G et al. Risk factors associated with incident clinical vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(5):568–578. Ref ID: PAPAIOANNOU2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Park HM, Sedrine WB, Reginster JY et al. Korean experience with the OSTA risk index for osteoporosis: a validation study. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2003; 6(3):247–250. Ref ID: PARK2003Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Partanen J, Heikkinen J, Jamsa T et al. Characteristics of lifetime factors, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in patients with hip fracture. Journal of Bone & Mineral Metabolism. 2002; 20(6):367–375. Ref ID: PARTANEN2002Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Peacock M, Turner CH, Liu G et al. Better discrimination of hip fracture using bone density, geometry and architecture. Osteoporos Int. 1995; 5(3):167–173. Ref ID: PEACOCK1995Case-control study
Peretz A, De M, V, Moris M et al. Evaluation of quantitative ultrasound and dual X-Ray absorptiometry measurements in women with and without fractures. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 1999; 2(2):127–133. Ref ID: PERETZ1999Cross-sectional (Sen, spec)
Persson GR, Berglund J, Persson RE et al. Prediction of hip and hand fractures in older persons with or without a diagnosis of periodontitis. Bone. 2011; 48(3):552–556. Ref ID: PERSSON2011Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Peter I, Crosier MD, Yoshida M et al. Associations of APOE gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density and fracture risk: A meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2011; 22(4):1199–1209. Ref ID: PETER2011Not relevant to review question
Pinheiro MM, Reis Neto ET, Machado FS et al. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures and low bone density in pre and postmenopausal women. Rev Saude Publica. 2010; 44(3):479–485. Ref ID: PINHEIRO2010Cross-sectional descriptive study
Pongchaiyakul C, Nguyen ND, Eisman JA et al. Clinical risk indices, prediction of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures: diagnostic consequences and costs. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(11):1444–1450. Ref ID: PONGCHAIYAKUL2005Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Rabier B, Heraud A, Grand-Lenoir C et al. A multicentre, retrospective case-control study assessing the role of trabecular bone score (TBS) in menopausal Caucasian women with low areal bone mineral density (BMDa): Analysing the odds of vertebral fracture. Bone. 2010; 46(1):176–181. Ref ID: RABIER2010Case-control study
Rasheed A, Khurshid R, Aftab L. Bone mass measurement and factors associated with risk of fracture in a group of peri- and postmenoupausal women. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC. 2008; 20(1):48–51. Ref ID: RASHEED2008Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Reginster JY, Ben SW, Viethel P et al. Validation of OSIRIS, a prescreening tool for the identification of women with an increased risk of osteoporosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004; 18(1):3–8. Ref ID: REGINSTER2004Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Rehman Q, Lang T, Modin G et al. Quantitative computed tomography of the lumbar spine, not dual x-ray absorptiometry, is an independent predictor of prevalent vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteopenia receiving long-term glucocorticoid and hormone-replacement therapy. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2002; 46(5):1292–1297. Ref ID: REHMAN2002Not relevant to review question (prevalent vertebral fracture as outcome)
Rivadeneira F, Zillikens MC, De Laet CE et al. Femoral neck BMD is a strong predictor of hip fracture susceptibility in elderly men and women because it detects cortical bone instability: the Rotterdam Study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2007; 22(11):1781–1790. Ref ID: RIVADENEIRA2007Not relevant to review question (not BMD alone)
Robbins JA, Schott AM, Garnero P et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in women with high BMD: EPIDOS study. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(2):149–154. Ref ID: ROBBINS2005Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Rodriguez-Soto AE, Fritscher KD, Schuler B et al. Texture analysis, bone mineral density, and cortical thickness of the proximal femur: fracture risk prediction. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010; 34(6):949–957. Ref ID: RODRIGUEZSOTO2010Case-control study
Romagnoli E, Del FR, Russo S et al. Secondary osteoporosis in men and women: Clinical challenge of an unresolved issue. J Rheumatol. 2011; 38(8):1671–1679. Ref ID: ROMAGNOLI2011Not relevant to review question
Ross PD, Genant HK, Davis JW et al. Predicting vertebral fracture incidence from prevalent fractures and bone density among non-black, osteoporotic women. Osteoporos Int. 1993; 3(3):120–126. Ref ID: ROSS1993APaper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Ross PD, Huang C, Davis JW et al. Vertebral dimension measurements improve prediction of vertebral fracture incidence. Bone. 1995; 16(4 Suppl):257S–262S. Ref ID: ROSS1995Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Ross PD, Kress BC, Parson RE et al. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and calcaneus bone density predict fractures: a prospective study. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11(1):76–82. Ref ID: ROSS2000Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Roux C, Briot K, Horlait S et al. Assessment of non- vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007; 66(7):931–935. Ref ID: ROUX2007Not relevant to review question (not BMD alone)
Rozas-Moreno P, Reyes-Garca R, Luque-Fernandez I et al. Utility of FRAX index in the evaluation of type 2 diabetes patients. Bone. 2011; Conference(var.pagings):S198. Ref ID: ROZASMORENO2011Conference abstract
Saeed I, Carpenter RD, Leblanc AD et al. Quantitative computed tomography reveals the effects of race and sex on bone size and trabecular and cortical bone density. Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 2009; 12(3):330–336. Ref ID: SAEED2009Did not report risk of fracture as outcome
Sakai A, Oshige T, Zenke Y et al. Association of bone mineral density with deformity of the distal radius in low- energy Colles’ fractures in Japanese women above 50 years of age. Journal of Hand Surgery - American Volume. 2008; 33(6):820–826. Ref ID: SAKAI2008Not relevant to review question
Sakkers R, Kok D, Engelbert R et al. Skeletal effects and functional outcome with olpadronate in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: a 2-year randomised placebo- controlled study. Lancet. 2004; 363(9419):1427–1431. Ref ID: SAKKERS2004Not relevant to review question (treatment response in children)
Salaffi F, Silveri F, Stancati A et al. Development and validation of the osteoporosis prescreening risk assessment (OPERA) tool to facilitate identification of women likely to have low bone density. Clin Rheumatol. 2003; 24(3):3–211. Ref ID: SALAFFI2003Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
Sarkar S, Mitlak BH, Wong M et al. Relationships between bone mineral density and incident vertebral fracture risk with raloxifene therapy. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2002; 17(1):1–10. Ref ID: SARKAR2002Not relevant to review question (treatment response measured by change in BMD)
Sato Y, Kanoko T, Satoh K et al. Risk factors for hip fracture among elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Sci. 2004; 223(2):107–112. Ref ID: SATO2004Not measure of effect
Schneider DL, Worley K, Beard MK et al. The primary care osteoporosis risk of fracture screening (POROS) study: design and baseline characteristics. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 2010; 31(4):336–344. Ref ID: SCHNEIDER2010Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
Schneyer CR, Lopez H, Concannon M et al. Assessing population risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis: a new strategy using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2008; 23(1):151–158. Ref ID: SCHNEYER2008Not relevant to review question (assessing risk of osteoporosis rather than fragility fracture)
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van der Klift M, De Laet CE, McCloskey EV et al. The incidence of vertebral fractures in men and women: the Rotterdam Study. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2002; 17(6):1051–1056. Ref ID: VANDERKLIFT2002Paper did not report area under curve (results reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, etc.)
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From: Appendix C, How this guideline was developed

Cover of Osteoporosis: Fragility Fracture Risk
Osteoporosis: Fragility Fracture Risk: Osteoporosis: Assessing the Risk of Fragility Fracture.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 146.
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).
Copyright © 2012, National Clinical Guideline Centre.

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