Table 23QFracture – QUADAS II: quality assessment of included studies

Author, yearRisk of selection BiasRisk of index test biasRisk of reference standard biasRisk of other biasRisk of multiple test biasOverall risk of biasApplicability
Collins 201110LowLow(a)LowHighN/AHighDirect
Hippisley-Cox 200928LowLowLowHighN/AHighDirect

Risk of index test bias was high for men - there was >50% imputation for one of the risk factors.

From: 4, Risk assessment tools (FRAX, QFracture, BMD)

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Osteoporosis: Fragility Fracture Risk: Osteoporosis: Assessing the Risk of Fragility Fracture.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 146.
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