Table 46Hydrophilic coated vs. non-coated catheters for long term intermittent self catheterisation – Clinical study characteristics

OutcomeNumber of studiesDesignLimitationsInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecision
Mean monthly urinary tract infection - 12 months2651RCTSerious limitations(a)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessNo serious imprecision
Total urinary tract infections - 1 year 351RCTSerious limitations (b)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessNo serious imprecision
Patients with ≥ 1 urinary tract infection – 1 year35,592RCTSerious limitations (b, d)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Patients/helpers very satisfied with the catheter – 6 months 591RCTSerious limitations (d)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Patients/helpers very satisfied with the catheter – 1 year 591RCTSerious limitations (d)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Patient satisfaction 254(visual analogue scale, 10 = least favourable)1RCTSerious limitations (e, g)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Problems introducing catheter1931RCTSerious limitations (f)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Burning sensation when introducing the catheter1931RCTSerious limitations (f)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Pain when introducing the catheter1931RCTSerious limitations (f)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Burning sensation or pain after removal of the catheter1931RCTSerious limitations (f)No serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (c)
Bacteraemia0RCT
Mortality0RCT
a

Method of randomisation not stated. Number of urinary tract infections at baseline is higher in intervention compared to the control. Catheters re-used up to 5 times a day for control, where as intervention did not reuse catheters.

b

Method of randomisation not stated and unclear allocation concealment. Higher number of women in control group compared to the intervention35.

c

The relatively few events and few patients give wide confidence intervals around the estimate of effect. This makes it difficult to know the true effect size for this outcome.

d

High dropout rate in DeRidder et al., 200559 (54%) due to restored urinary function and thus no further need for catheterisation, change of bladder management to an indwelling catheter and withdrawal of consent.

e

Sutherland et al., 1996254 population is all male mean age 12 years old.

f
g

Crossover study. No details of allocation concealment or assessor blinding.

From: 10, Long term urinary catheters

Cover of Infection: Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Primary and Community Care
Infection: Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Primary and Community Care: Partial Update of NICE Clinical Guideline 2.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 139.
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).
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